«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 ...»
Table 3.57: Overview of the composition of the off gases of two typical carpet backing lines (textile backing and foam backing).
Analysis was performed by GC/MS
Table 3.58: Example of process-specific emission data (measured data) from carpet baking lines.
........ 222 Table 3.59: Odour-intensive substances in the textile industry
Table 3.60: Typical examples of odour concentrations in some textile processes (OU: odour unit).
...... 224 Table 3.61: Solid and liquid wastes from textile industry
Table 4.1: Form for the listing of textile auxiliaries for dyeing and printing
Table 4.2: Payback periods for heat insulation of dyeing units
Table 4.3: Emission factors and corresponding organic-C concentration in the off-gas
Table 4.4: COD reduction after replacement of conventional sizing agent by alternative recipe based on polyacrylates
Table 4.5: Comparison between conventional and high-efficiency sizing agents
Table 4.6: Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in the River Calder below Dewsbury Sewage Treatment Works (UK).
Data for 2 years to June 2000
Table 4.7: Textile auxiliaries sold in Germany from 1997 to 2000: number, quantity and percentage of textile auxiliaries in classes I, II, III, according to TEGEWA
Table 4.8: Qualitative assessment of commercially available complexing agents
Table 4.9: Effectiveness of complexing agents
Table 4.10: Estimate of the economic benefits achievable with the installation of integrated dirt removal/ grease recovery loops
Table 4.11: Emissions to water at Mill N, 1982-1995: production specific values
Table 4.12: Incinerator flue gas emissions at Mill N: concentrations
Table 4.13: Solid wastes at Mill N, 1982-1995: production-specific values
Table 4.14: Energy savings from operating the last bowl at optimum temperature (65°C)
Table 4.15: Typical example of annual savings achievable when introducing recovery of sizing agents 287 Table 4.
16: Environmental benefits achieved with an enzymatic scouring process
Table 4.17: Optimisation of warp yarn scouring/bleaching: absolute and specific water consumption and waste water discharge before and after process optimisation
Table 4.18: Optimisation of warp yarn scouring/bleaching: recipe and operating conditions for the optimised process
Table 4.19: Sulphur and sulphite concentration and load in the mixed effluent from typical processes using sodium dithionite or sulphinic acid based reducing agents
Table 4.20: Comparison of the sequence steps between a conventional and an enzymatic after-soaping treatment (exhaust dyeing)
Table 4.21: Quantities of salt required for dyeing 1000 kg of fabric to a medium depth of shade.
......... 323 Table 4.22: Comparison between a conventional pad-batch process and the referenced technique applied to mercerised 100 % cotton twill, 300 g/m, 75 % pick-up
Table 4.23: Composition and ecological information of six commercial reactive dyestuffs for wool.
.... 335 Table 4.24: Composition and ecological information of two auxiliaries to be applied with “Lanasol Dyes”
Table 4.25: Comparative analysis of the features of chrome dyes and reactive dyes for wool dyeing.
... 336 Table 4.26: Assessment of the economic aspects involved when changing over from chrome to reactive dyes
Table 4.27: Environmental benefit associated with optimisation of batch dyeing machines
Table 4.28: Comparison of specific input data for cotton dyeing with reactive dyestuffs in a conventional jet (L.
R. 1:8 – 1:12) and in the airflow machine described above
Table 4.29: Comparison of the performance for cotton dyeing with reactive dyestuffs in a conventional machine, a "new generation machine" (typified by having charge tanks, pumped drain & fill options and continuous rinsing systems) and the referenced soft-flow machine
Table 4.30: Comparison of the performance for cotton dyeing with reactive dyestuffs in a conventional machine (L.
R. 1:10 – 1:12), a "new generation machine" (L.R. 1:8 and equipped with latest time-saving devices) and the single-rope machine described above (L.R. 1:6)
Table 4.31: Volatile organic carbon emissions in pigment printing
Table 4.32: Volume of conventional and optimised printing paste supply systems in rotary screen printing machines for textiles
xxxii Textiles Industry Table 4.33: Amount of printing paste required for printing various lengths of fabric at different degrees of coverage
Table 4.34: Calculation of savings achievable in a typical textile mill by installing the referenced printing paste recovery system (the number of changes as well as the number of printing pastes per design may be higher in industrial practice)
Table 4.35: Return on investment for different processes (textiles drying and heat setting), heat recovery systems (air/water and air/air) and number of shifts per day
Table 4.36: Overview of formaldehyde release potential of most important cross-linking agents.
..........377 Table 4.37: Indicative emissions from loose fibre dyeing
Table 4.38: Achievable specific water consumption levels for continuous washing processes during finishing of open width woven fabric consisting of cotton or viscose and their blends with synthetic fibres
Table 4.39: Consumption data: aqueous system and solvent system
Table 4.40: Hourly cost figures: aqueous system and solvent system
Table 4.41: Characteristics of waste water parameters (input and output) for six treatment plants.
........413 Table 4.42: Typical characteristics of the different water streams (mean values) at the treatment plant Schiesser, D-Niederfrohna
Table 4.43: Measures emission values: off-gas from the thermal regeneration plant
Table 4.44: Elemental analysis of fresh and regenerated lignite coke
Table 4.45: Capital and operating costs of the Schiesser plant; costs are calculated for the design flow of 2500 m3/d and 600000m3/yr, respectively
Table 4.46: Waste water treatment techniques: Environmental performance – coarse wool
Table 4.47: Waste water treatment techniques: Environmental performance – fine wool
Table 4.48: Unit costs
Table 4.49: Costs of effluent treatment options for a scouring mill processing 3500 t/yr of coarse wool439 Table 4.
50: Costs of effluent treatment options for a scouring mill processing 15000 t/yr of coarse wool
Table 4.51: Composting and maturation times, capital and treatment costs, for three types of in-vessel composting plant
Table 5.1: BAT for selection of incoming fibre raw material
Table 6.1: Enzymatic processes in textile finishing
Table 8.1: Overview of the loads of auxiliary agents applied on the fibre and yarn during the production process
Table 8.2: Load of preparation agents on non-texturised filament yarns (flat yarns)
Table 8.3: Load of preparation agents applied on texturised filament yarns (texturised yarns).
..............487 Table 8.4: Load of preparation agents applied on chemical staple fibres
Table 8.5: Load of conditioning agents and lubricants applied on cotton, viscose (staple fibres) and wool
Table 8.6: Amounts of sizing agents applied on different types of substrates
Table 8.7: Specific COD and BOD5 values for the most common sizing agents
Table 8.8: Typical compounds used as detergents/ wetting agents
Table 8.9: Typical compounds encountered in levelling agents
Table 9.1: Overview of the ecological properties of acid dyes
Table 9.2: Overview of the ecological properties of direct dyes
Table 9.3: Overview of the ecological properties of disperse dyes
Table 9.4: Overview of the ecological properties of metal complex dyes
Table 9.5: Overview of the ecological properties of chrome dyes
Table 9.6: Overview of the ecological properties of naphthol dyes
Table 9.7: Typical anchor systems for cellulose fibres
Table 9.8: Typical anchor systems for wool and polyamide fibres
Table 9.9: Overview of the ecological properties of reactive dyes
Table 9.10: Overview of the ecological properties of sulphur dyes
Table 9.11: Overview of the ecological properties of vat dyes
Figure 1.1: Estimates of the amounts of greasy wool scoured during 1997 in the 15 EU Member States.
.. 5 Figure 1.2: EU Textile Finishing Production
Figure 1.3: Worldwide production of carpets and rugs in 1999
Figure 1.4: Carpet production and consumption in some EU Member States
Figure 1.5: European carpet and rug production in 1995 for the major producers of carpets and rugs in Europe
Figure 1.6: Total carpet and rug production in Europe in 1995
Figure 1.7: Auxiliaries pattern usage in a typical finishing mill
Figure 2.1: General diagram of processes in the textile industry
Figure 2.2: Simplified process sequences for manufacturing of continuous filaments (flat and texturised) and staple fibres
Figure 2.3: Conventional wool scouring arrangement
Figure 2.4: Schematic diagram showing a scour line, integrated waste handling process and on-site effluent treatment plant
Figure 2.5: Simplified scheme of the Wooltech process
Figure 2.6: Cross-section of a tufted carpet
Figure 2.7: Simplified representation of a tufting plant
Figure 2.8: A: Level loop pile; B: Cut and loop pile
Figure 2.9: Manufacture of needle-felt carpet
Figure 2.10: Representation of the production process for woven carpets
Figure 2.11: Example of Mercerising equipment for woven fabric
Figure 2.12: Example of Mercerising equipment for knitted fabric in tubular form
Figure 2.13: Representation of a conventional carbonising installation
Figure 2.14: "Carbosol" system
Figure 2.15: Schematic representation of discharge printing
Figure 2.16: Schematic representation of resist printing
Figure 2.17: Screen printing with automatic squeegee system
Figure 2.18: Representation of a flat-screen printing machine
Figure 2.19: Representation of "Mechanised screen printing machine with stationary screens mounted in a frame"
Figure 2.20: Representation of the rotary-screen printing process
Figure 2.21: Representation of a rotary-screen printing machine
Figure 2.22: Printing-paste feeding system for a rotary-screen printing machine
Figure 2.23: Roller printing machine
Figure 2.24: More recent example of roller printing machine
Figure 2.25: Schematic representation of the Millitron system
Figure 2.26: Schematic representation of the TAK system
Figure 2.27: Schematic representation of the Hercosett process
Figure 2.28: Pre-coated tufted carpet
Figure 2.29: Pre-coating application by slop-padding
Figure 2.30: Pre-coating application by doctor-blade technique
Figure 2.31: Foam-coated tufted carpet
Figure 2.32: Representation of the SBR foam coating process
Figure 2.33: PU foam coating
Figure 2.34: Textile backing
Figure 2.35: Textile backing by means of the laminating glue process
Figure 2.36: Textile backing by means of the powder lamination (melting glue)
Figure 2.37: Carpet manufactured with the AdBac process
Figure 2.38: Representation of the heavy coating process
Figure 2.39: Solvent washing: representation of the solvent circuit
Figure 2.40: Solvent washing: representation of the air circuit in a open-loop washing machine.
.......... 115 Figure 2.41: Solvent washing: representation of the air circuit in a closed-loop washing machine......... 115 Figure 2.42: Typical process sequence for the finishing of knitted fabric mainly consisting of cotton... 122 Figure 2.43: Typical process sequence for the finishing of knitted fabric consisting mainly of man-made fibres
Figure 2.44: Typical process sequence for the finishing of woven fabric mainly consisting of cotton.
... 124 Figure 2.45: Typical process sequence for the finishing of woven fabric mainly consisting of wool...... 125 Figure 2.46: General process flow diagram for wool and wool-blend carpet yarn production................ 126 Figure 2.47: Schematic layout of a hank-scouring machine
Figure 2.48: Schematic diagram of a "Package to Package" yarn scouring installation
xxxiv Textiles Industry Figure 3.1: Net specific water consumption plotted against production volume
Figure 3.2: Relationship between the detergent feed rate and the rate of discharge of effluent to treatment
Figure 3.3: Energy and water consumption in 11 UK scouring mills
Figure 3.4: Energy consumption plotted against water consumption for 11 UK scouring mills.
.............144 Figure 3.5: Water consumption against throughput for 11 UK scouring mills
Figure 3.6: Diagram showing the ranges of inputs to and outputs from the scouring processes and effluent treatment plants (on- and off-site) at the mills surveyed
Figure 3.7: Example of composition of the COD load for a mill finishing knitted fabric consisting mainly of polyamide
Figure 3.8: Composition of the COD load of a mill finishing woven fabric consisting mainly of cotton;
semi-continuous and continuous dyeing is carried out with sulphur, vat and reactive dyestuffs
Figure 3.9: Analysis of thermal and electric energy consumption for the finishing of viscose fabric.
.....178 Figure 3.10: Analysis of thermal and electric energy consumption for the finishing of viscose/PES fabric
Figure 3.11: Composition of the COD load of a mill finishing woven fabric consisting of polyamide mainly
Figure 3.12: Typical continuous process for pretreatment of cellulosic fibres, including desizing (first two compartments), scouring (padding of scouring liquor, steam treatment, washing, drying), bleaching (padding of the bleaching liquor, steaming, washing and drying)
Figure 3.13: Waste water: fibre partition coefficients for OC, OP and SP pesticides in wet processing.
.215 Figure 3.14: Diagram showing the ranges of inputs to and indicative output from wool and wool-blend carpet fibre wet processing
Figure 4.1: Scheme for annual input/output overview at site level
Figure 4.2: Example of automated systems for dispensing chemicals
Figure 4.3: Bioelimination curves in the modified Zahn-Wellens Test (EN 29888) of seven combinations of different sizing agents which are bioeliminated to more than 80 % after 14 days.
.............251 Figure 4.4: Residues on Australian fleece wool 1996 to 1999
Figure 4.5: Average pesticide residues in New Zealand greasy wool 1994 to 2000
Figure 4.6: Chemical structure of some N- or P- containing complexing agents
Figure 4.7: Chemical structure of some N- and P-free complexing agents
Figure 4.8: Schematic diagram of the effluent and waste management system at Mill N
Figure 4.9: Recovery of sizing agents by ultrafiltration
Figure 4.10: Representative example of mass balance for sizing agents and water with and without recovery
Figure 4.11: Production of the peroxide radical ion by scavenging hydroxyl radicals (OH*) using hydrogen peroxide
Figure 4.12: Representation of the caustic soda recovery process by evaporation followed by lye purification
Figure 4.13: Comparison between the composition of conventional and new liquid formulations of liquid disperse dyes, before and after biological treatment (the (%) in the y axis indicates the percentage of dispersing agents related to the overall formulation)
Figure 4.14: Comparison of the bioelimination rates of conventional and modified dispersing agents, both based on condensation products of naphthalenesulphonic acid with formaldehyde.
...............307 Figure 4.15: Representation of a U-shaft (A) and nip (B) dye liquor application systems
Figure 4.16: Dosing curve for ready-made alkali solution
Figure 4.17: Two examples of polyfunctional dyestuffs