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«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 ...»

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Table 3.57: Overview of the composition of the off gases of two typical carpet backing lines (textile backing and foam backing).

Analysis was performed by GC/MS

Table 3.58: Example of process-specific emission data (measured data) from carpet baking lines.

........ 222 Table 3.59: Odour-intensive substances in the textile industry

Table 3.60: Typical examples of odour concentrations in some textile processes (OU: odour unit).

...... 224 Table 3.61: Solid and liquid wastes from textile industry

Table 4.1: Form for the listing of textile auxiliaries for dyeing and printing

Table 4.2: Payback periods for heat insulation of dyeing units

Table 4.3: Emission factors and corresponding organic-C concentration in the off-gas

Table 4.4: COD reduction after replacement of conventional sizing agent by alternative recipe based on polyacrylates

Table 4.5: Comparison between conventional and high-efficiency sizing agents

Table 4.6: Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in the River Calder below Dewsbury Sewage Treatment Works (UK).

Data for 2 years to June 2000

Table 4.7: Textile auxiliaries sold in Germany from 1997 to 2000: number, quantity and percentage of textile auxiliaries in classes I, II, III, according to TEGEWA

Table 4.8: Qualitative assessment of commercially available complexing agents

Table 4.9: Effectiveness of complexing agents

Table 4.10: Estimate of the economic benefits achievable with the installation of integrated dirt removal/ grease recovery loops

Table 4.11: Emissions to water at Mill N, 1982-1995: production specific values

Table 4.12: Incinerator flue gas emissions at Mill N: concentrations

Table 4.13: Solid wastes at Mill N, 1982-1995: production-specific values

Table 4.14: Energy savings from operating the last bowl at optimum temperature (65°C)

Table 4.15: Typical example of annual savings achievable when introducing recovery of sizing agents 287 Table 4.

16: Environmental benefits achieved with an enzymatic scouring process

Table 4.17: Optimisation of warp yarn scouring/bleaching: absolute and specific water consumption and waste water discharge before and after process optimisation

Table 4.18: Optimisation of warp yarn scouring/bleaching: recipe and operating conditions for the optimised process

Table 4.19: Sulphur and sulphite concentration and load in the mixed effluent from typical processes using sodium dithionite or sulphinic acid based reducing agents

Table 4.20: Comparison of the sequence steps between a conventional and an enzymatic after-soaping treatment (exhaust dyeing)

Table 4.21: Quantities of salt required for dyeing 1000 kg of fabric to a medium depth of shade.

......... 323 Table 4.22: Comparison between a conventional pad-batch process and the referenced technique applied to mercerised 100 % cotton twill, 300 g/m, 75 % pick-up

Table 4.23: Composition and ecological information of six commercial reactive dyestuffs for wool.

.... 335 Table 4.24: Composition and ecological information of two auxiliaries to be applied with “Lanasol Dyes”

Table 4.25: Comparative analysis of the features of chrome dyes and reactive dyes for wool dyeing.

... 336 Table 4.26: Assessment of the economic aspects involved when changing over from chrome to reactive dyes

Table 4.27: Environmental benefit associated with optimisation of batch dyeing machines

Table 4.28: Comparison of specific input data for cotton dyeing with reactive dyestuffs in a conventional jet (L.

R. 1:8 – 1:12) and in the airflow machine described above

Table 4.29: Comparison of the performance for cotton dyeing with reactive dyestuffs in a conventional machine, a "new generation machine" (typified by having charge tanks, pumped drain & fill options and continuous rinsing systems) and the referenced soft-flow machine

Table 4.30: Comparison of the performance for cotton dyeing with reactive dyestuffs in a conventional machine (L.

R. 1:10 – 1:12), a "new generation machine" (L.R. 1:8 and equipped with latest time-saving devices) and the single-rope machine described above (L.R. 1:6)

Table 4.31: Volatile organic carbon emissions in pigment printing

Table 4.32: Volume of conventional and optimised printing paste supply systems in rotary screen printing machines for textiles

xxxii Textiles Industry Table 4.33: Amount of printing paste required for printing various lengths of fabric at different degrees of coverage

Table 4.34: Calculation of savings achievable in a typical textile mill by installing the referenced printing paste recovery system (the number of changes as well as the number of printing pastes per design may be higher in industrial practice)

Table 4.35: Return on investment for different processes (textiles drying and heat setting), heat recovery systems (air/water and air/air) and number of shifts per day

Table 4.36: Overview of formaldehyde release potential of most important cross-linking agents.

..........377 Table 4.37: Indicative emissions from loose fibre dyeing





Table 4.38: Achievable specific water consumption levels for continuous washing processes during finishing of open width woven fabric consisting of cotton or viscose and their blends with synthetic fibres

Table 4.39: Consumption data: aqueous system and solvent system

Table 4.40: Hourly cost figures: aqueous system and solvent system

Table 4.41: Characteristics of waste water parameters (input and output) for six treatment plants.

........413 Table 4.42: Typical characteristics of the different water streams (mean values) at the treatment plant Schiesser, D-Niederfrohna

Table 4.43: Measures emission values: off-gas from the thermal regeneration plant

Table 4.44: Elemental analysis of fresh and regenerated lignite coke

Table 4.45: Capital and operating costs of the Schiesser plant; costs are calculated for the design flow of 2500 m3/d and 600000m3/yr, respectively

Table 4.46: Waste water treatment techniques: Environmental performance – coarse wool

Table 4.47: Waste water treatment techniques: Environmental performance – fine wool

Table 4.48: Unit costs

Table 4.49: Costs of effluent treatment options for a scouring mill processing 3500 t/yr of coarse wool439 Table 4.

50: Costs of effluent treatment options for a scouring mill processing 15000 t/yr of coarse wool

Table 4.51: Composting and maturation times, capital and treatment costs, for three types of in-vessel composting plant

Table 5.1: BAT for selection of incoming fibre raw material

Table 6.1: Enzymatic processes in textile finishing

Table 8.1: Overview of the loads of auxiliary agents applied on the fibre and yarn during the production process

Table 8.2: Load of preparation agents on non-texturised filament yarns (flat yarns)

Table 8.3: Load of preparation agents applied on texturised filament yarns (texturised yarns).

..............487 Table 8.4: Load of preparation agents applied on chemical staple fibres

Table 8.5: Load of conditioning agents and lubricants applied on cotton, viscose (staple fibres) and wool

Table 8.6: Amounts of sizing agents applied on different types of substrates

Table 8.7: Specific COD and BOD5 values for the most common sizing agents

Table 8.8: Typical compounds used as detergents/ wetting agents

Table 8.9: Typical compounds encountered in levelling agents

Table 9.1: Overview of the ecological properties of acid dyes

Table 9.2: Overview of the ecological properties of direct dyes

Table 9.3: Overview of the ecological properties of disperse dyes

Table 9.4: Overview of the ecological properties of metal complex dyes

Table 9.5: Overview of the ecological properties of chrome dyes

Table 9.6: Overview of the ecological properties of naphthol dyes

Table 9.7: Typical anchor systems for cellulose fibres

Table 9.8: Typical anchor systems for wool and polyamide fibres

Table 9.9: Overview of the ecological properties of reactive dyes

Table 9.10: Overview of the ecological properties of sulphur dyes

Table 9.11: Overview of the ecological properties of vat dyes

–  –  –

Figure 1.1: Estimates of the amounts of greasy wool scoured during 1997 in the 15 EU Member States.

.. 5 Figure 1.2: EU Textile Finishing Production

Figure 1.3: Worldwide production of carpets and rugs in 1999

Figure 1.4: Carpet production and consumption in some EU Member States

Figure 1.5: European carpet and rug production in 1995 for the major producers of carpets and rugs in Europe

Figure 1.6: Total carpet and rug production in Europe in 1995

Figure 1.7: Auxiliaries pattern usage in a typical finishing mill

Figure 2.1: General diagram of processes in the textile industry

Figure 2.2: Simplified process sequences for manufacturing of continuous filaments (flat and texturised) and staple fibres

Figure 2.3: Conventional wool scouring arrangement

Figure 2.4: Schematic diagram showing a scour line, integrated waste handling process and on-site effluent treatment plant

Figure 2.5: Simplified scheme of the Wooltech process

Figure 2.6: Cross-section of a tufted carpet

Figure 2.7: Simplified representation of a tufting plant

Figure 2.8: A: Level loop pile; B: Cut and loop pile

Figure 2.9: Manufacture of needle-felt carpet

Figure 2.10: Representation of the production process for woven carpets

Figure 2.11: Example of Mercerising equipment for woven fabric

Figure 2.12: Example of Mercerising equipment for knitted fabric in tubular form

Figure 2.13: Representation of a conventional carbonising installation

Figure 2.14: "Carbosol" system

Figure 2.15: Schematic representation of discharge printing

Figure 2.16: Schematic representation of resist printing

Figure 2.17: Screen printing with automatic squeegee system

Figure 2.18: Representation of a flat-screen printing machine

Figure 2.19: Representation of "Mechanised screen printing machine with stationary screens mounted in a frame"

Figure 2.20: Representation of the rotary-screen printing process

Figure 2.21: Representation of a rotary-screen printing machine

Figure 2.22: Printing-paste feeding system for a rotary-screen printing machine

Figure 2.23: Roller printing machine

Figure 2.24: More recent example of roller printing machine

Figure 2.25: Schematic representation of the Millitron system

Figure 2.26: Schematic representation of the TAK system

Figure 2.27: Schematic representation of the Hercosett process

Figure 2.28: Pre-coated tufted carpet

Figure 2.29: Pre-coating application by slop-padding

Figure 2.30: Pre-coating application by doctor-blade technique

Figure 2.31: Foam-coated tufted carpet

Figure 2.32: Representation of the SBR foam coating process

Figure 2.33: PU foam coating

Figure 2.34: Textile backing

Figure 2.35: Textile backing by means of the laminating glue process

Figure 2.36: Textile backing by means of the powder lamination (melting glue)

Figure 2.37: Carpet manufactured with the AdBac process

Figure 2.38: Representation of the heavy coating process

Figure 2.39: Solvent washing: representation of the solvent circuit

Figure 2.40: Solvent washing: representation of the air circuit in a open-loop washing machine.

.......... 115 Figure 2.41: Solvent washing: representation of the air circuit in a closed-loop washing machine......... 115 Figure 2.42: Typical process sequence for the finishing of knitted fabric mainly consisting of cotton... 122 Figure 2.43: Typical process sequence for the finishing of knitted fabric consisting mainly of man-made fibres

Figure 2.44: Typical process sequence for the finishing of woven fabric mainly consisting of cotton.

... 124 Figure 2.45: Typical process sequence for the finishing of woven fabric mainly consisting of wool...... 125 Figure 2.46: General process flow diagram for wool and wool-blend carpet yarn production................ 126 Figure 2.47: Schematic layout of a hank-scouring machine

Figure 2.48: Schematic diagram of a "Package to Package" yarn scouring installation

xxxiv Textiles Industry Figure 3.1: Net specific water consumption plotted against production volume

Figure 3.2: Relationship between the detergent feed rate and the rate of discharge of effluent to treatment

Figure 3.3: Energy and water consumption in 11 UK scouring mills

Figure 3.4: Energy consumption plotted against water consumption for 11 UK scouring mills.

.............144 Figure 3.5: Water consumption against throughput for 11 UK scouring mills

Figure 3.6: Diagram showing the ranges of inputs to and outputs from the scouring processes and effluent treatment plants (on- and off-site) at the mills surveyed

Figure 3.7: Example of composition of the COD load for a mill finishing knitted fabric consisting mainly of polyamide

Figure 3.8: Composition of the COD load of a mill finishing woven fabric consisting mainly of cotton;

semi-continuous and continuous dyeing is carried out with sulphur, vat and reactive dyestuffs

Figure 3.9: Analysis of thermal and electric energy consumption for the finishing of viscose fabric.

.....178 Figure 3.10: Analysis of thermal and electric energy consumption for the finishing of viscose/PES fabric

Figure 3.11: Composition of the COD load of a mill finishing woven fabric consisting of polyamide mainly

Figure 3.12: Typical continuous process for pretreatment of cellulosic fibres, including desizing (first two compartments), scouring (padding of scouring liquor, steam treatment, washing, drying), bleaching (padding of the bleaching liquor, steaming, washing and drying)

Figure 3.13: Waste water: fibre partition coefficients for OC, OP and SP pesticides in wet processing.

.215 Figure 3.14: Diagram showing the ranges of inputs to and indicative output from wool and wool-blend carpet fibre wet processing

Figure 4.1: Scheme for annual input/output overview at site level

Figure 4.2: Example of automated systems for dispensing chemicals

Figure 4.3: Bioelimination curves in the modified Zahn-Wellens Test (EN 29888) of seven combinations of different sizing agents which are bioeliminated to more than 80 % after 14 days.

.............251 Figure 4.4: Residues on Australian fleece wool 1996 to 1999

Figure 4.5: Average pesticide residues in New Zealand greasy wool 1994 to 2000

Figure 4.6: Chemical structure of some N- or P- containing complexing agents

Figure 4.7: Chemical structure of some N- and P-free complexing agents

Figure 4.8: Schematic diagram of the effluent and waste management system at Mill N

Figure 4.9: Recovery of sizing agents by ultrafiltration

Figure 4.10: Representative example of mass balance for sizing agents and water with and without recovery

Figure 4.11: Production of the peroxide radical ion by scavenging hydroxyl radicals (OH*) using hydrogen peroxide

Figure 4.12: Representation of the caustic soda recovery process by evaporation followed by lye purification

Figure 4.13: Comparison between the composition of conventional and new liquid formulations of liquid disperse dyes, before and after biological treatment (the (%) in the y axis indicates the percentage of dispersing agents related to the overall formulation)

Figure 4.14: Comparison of the bioelimination rates of conventional and modified dispersing agents, both based on condensation products of naphthalenesulphonic acid with formaldehyde.

...............307 Figure 4.15: Representation of a U-shaft (A) and nip (B) dye liquor application systems

Figure 4.16: Dosing curve for ready-made alkali solution

Figure 4.17: Two examples of polyfunctional dyestuffs



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