WWW.SA.I-PDF.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, books, theses
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 71 | 72 || 74 | 75 |   ...   | 83 |

«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 ...»

-- [ Page 73 ] --

11 US EPA, (1995). "Manual - Best Management Practices for Pollution Prevention in the Textile Industry",.

18 VITO, J. B. D. G. D., (1998). "Beste Beschikbare Technieken (BBT) voor de Textielveredeling (BAT for the textile processing)",.

31 Italy, (2000). "Information submitted by Italy - Emission and Consumption Levels in Prato District",.

32 ENco, D. A., (2001). "Best Available Techniques in Wool and Wool Blend Carpet Yarn Wet Processing",.

36 BASF, (2000). "Technical Information about BASF Products for Resin Finishing", TI/T 344.

37 TEGEWA, (2000). "Presentation of the "Method of Classification of Textile Auxiliaries according to their Relevance to Water"",.

44 Comm., P., (2000). "Technical information submitted by HRS Engineering about HRS technology for waste fumes treatment (condensing + dry electrostatic cleaning)",.

48 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about spin finishes and lubricants",.

50 OSPAR, (1997). "PARCOM Recommendation 97/1 Concerning Reference values for Effluent Discharges from Wet Processes in the Textile Processing Industry", Annex 12.

51 OSPAR, (1994). "PARCOM Recommendation 94/5 Concerning Best Available Techniques and Best Environmental Practice for Wet Processes in the Textile Processing Industry", Annex 9.

52 European Commission (1999). "Commission Decision of 17 February 1999 establishing the ecological criteria for the award of the Community eco-label to textile products".

59 L. Bettens, (2000). "A summary of findings of the assessed documentation, including conlusions and proposals",.

61 L. Bettens, (1999). "Evolution in Chemical Use since 1992 within the Textile Processing Industry",.

–  –  –

63 GuT/ ECA, (2000). "Production Process for Textile Floorcoverings (draft) Contribution for the IPPC BREF (Chapter 1-2)",.

64 BASF, (1994). "Products for Textile Finishing: Ecological Evaluation",.

65 TEGEWA, (2000). "International Textile Auxiliaries Buyers' Guide",.

66 CRIT, P., (1999). "IPPC - Italian Wool Textile Industry",.

69 Corbani, F. (1994). "Nobilitazione dei tessili",.

71 Bozzetto, (1997). "Servizio Informazioni Tecniche: Tintura della lana",.

76 Colorservice, (2001). "Technical information submitted by Colorservice about automatised dosing and laboratory linked on line with the dyeing department",.

77 EURATEX, E.-D., (2000). "Textile Industry BREF document (Chapter 2-3-4-5-6)",.

78 Danish EPA, (1999). "Cleaner Technology Transfer to the Polish Textile Industry",.

97 CSIRO (2000). "Technical brochure about Wool Residue Testing".

102 ETAD, (2001). "Guidance for the User Industry on the Environmental Hazard Labelling of Dyestuffs",.

103 G. Savage, (1998). "The Residue Implications of Sheep Ectoparasiticides",.

106 Vekos, (2001). "Information brochure about waste water treatment systems (Reed Bed Systems, Bi-Air Float, Bi-Sand Filter)",.

113 EURATEX, (1997). "Importance of the Textile and Clothing Industry in Europe",.

116 MCS, (2001). "Information brochure about "Multiflow"",.

120 Brazzoli, (2001). "Information brochure about "Sirio" dyeing machines",.

127 Loris Bellini, (2001). "Information brochure about "Loris Bellini" dyeing machines ( General Catalogue)",.

146 Energy Efficiency Office UK, (1997). "Good Practice Guide 168 - Cutting your energy costs - A guide for the textile dyeing and finishing industry",.

161 Comm., P., (2001). "Information submitted by CRAB - Biella about "Low-chrome dyeing techniques"",.

163 Comm., P., (2001). "Information submitted by CRAB about "Sostituzione dei coloranti al cromo con coloranti reattivi per la tintura della lana"", 167 Comm., P., (2000). "Information submitted by Vincenzo Bellini - Texcel about "Washing Efficiency in Discontinuous, Semi- and Continuous Processes for Cotton and Cotton Blends fabric" (II document)", 169 European Commission, (2001). "The European Eco-Label at a Glance",.

171 GuT, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of GuT about "Carpet Manufacturing"",.

–  –  –

176 VITO, (2001). "Information and comments submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Discontinuous Dyeing"", 177 Comm., P., (2001). "Information submitted by MCS about the "Multiflow Dyeing Machine"",.

178 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about CORTERRA PTT",.

179 UBA, (2001). "BAT Reference Document - Germany",.

180 Spain, -. P. J. M. C., Mr. L. Alier, Ms. Cristina Canal, (2001). "Information submitted by Spanish TWG "Posición Técnica Española en relacion al 1 Draft of the BREF on Textiles" including "Nuevas Aportaciones a los Capítulos 4 Y 5 del Draft 1 Documento BREF"",.

181 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Reducing Agents"",.

182 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Alkalidischargeable azo disperse dyes containing phthalimide moieties"",.

183 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Ecological Sulphur Dye & Dyeing Techniques"",.

185 Comm., P., (2001). "Information submitted by Vincenzo Bellini - Texcel about "Efficienza di asciugamento, ottimizzazione dell'aria di espulsione da un tipico asciugatoio e da una rameuse"", 186 Ullmann's (2000). "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry",.





187 INTERLAINE, (1999). "Best Available Techniques in Wool Scouring",.

188 VITO, (2001). "Information and comments submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Wool Chrome Dyeing Techniques"", 189 D. Levy, (1998). "Peroxide desizing: a new approach in efficient, universal size removal",.

190 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Fibre reactive dye(ing)"",.

191 VITO, (2001). "Information and comments submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Wool chrome dyeing or reactive dyeing?"", 192 Danish EPA, (2001). "Danish experiences: Best Available Techniques - BAT- in the clothing and textile industry - Preliminary Version - Document prepared for the European IPPC Bureau and theTWG on Textiles",.

193 CRAB, (2001). "Information submitted by CRAB about Emission and Consumption Levels in some Textile Finishing & Wool Scouring Mills in the Region of Biella-Italy",.

194 Comm., P. (2001). "Information submitted by BOZZETTO about "Typical add-on and COD content of the preparation agents applied on the fibre and yarn during the production process"".

–  –  –

195 Germany, (2001). "Comment to the First Draft of the BREF about "Softeners"",.

196 EIPPCB, (2001). "Draft Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in Common Waste Water and Waste Gas Treatment / Management Systems in the Chemical Sector",.

197 Comm., P., (2001). "Information submitted by Paolo Zanaroli - Sperotto Rimar, Italy about "The Use of Fully Closed-Loop Solvent Treamtent Installations for Continuous Textile Webs"", 198 TOWEFO, -. E.--., (2001). "Questionnaires submitted textile mills within the TOWEFO Project ( EVK1-CT-2000-00063 - Evaluation of the effect of the IPPC directive on the sustainable waste management in textile industries)",.

199 Italy, (2001). "Information submitted by Italy about Emission and Consumption Levels in one Textile Finishing Mill",.

200 Sweden, (2001). "Information submitted by Sweden about Emission and Consumption Levels in some Textile Finishing Mills",.

201 Wooltech, (2001). "Detailed description of Wooltech Processes and Techniques Document A1",.

202 Ian M. Russel, C.-T. a. F. T. (2000). "Meeting the IPPC needs of European Processors:

An Australian Perspective by Ian M. Russell - Commercial technology Forum - Nice meeting, Novembre 2000".

203 VITO, (2001). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "The Application of the Oxidative Route"",.

204 L. Bettens, (2000). "OSPAR POINT 2000-Conclusions",.

205 M. Bradbury, (2000). “Smart rinsing: a step change in reactive dye application technology" JSDC Volume 116 May/June 2000,,.

206 Italy, (2001). "Comments made by Italy to the First Draft of the BREF on textiles Information submitted about "Pretreatment of silk"",.

207 UK, (2001). "Comments made by UK to the First Draft of the BREF Textiles",.

208 ENco, (2001). "Comments made by ENco to the First Draft of the BREF Textiles",.

209 Germany, (2001). "Comments made by Germany to the First Draft of the BREF Textiles",.

210 L. Bettens, (1995). "Environmentally Friendly Bleaching of Natural Fibres by Advanced Techniques (SYNBLEACH EV5V -CT 94 - 0553)" European Workshop on Technologies for Environmental Protection,.

211 Kuster (2001). "Dye/ finish applicators - Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO".

218 Comm., P., (2000). "Comments and contributions submitted by Bozzetto about "Applied Processes and Techniques in the Textile Sector"", 247 Comm., P., (2001). "Comment made by L. Bettens about the "BAT Document" submitted by UBA - Germany",

–  –  –

278 EURATEX, (2002). "Information submitted by EURATEX about the Textile Finishing Sector (data source: CRIET - European Textile Finishing Association)", 279 L. Bettens (2001). "Comments made by L. Bettens to the First Draft of the BREF on Textiles".

280 Germany (2002). "Comments made by Germany to the Second Draft of the BREF Textiles".

281 Belgium (2002). "Comments made by Belgium to the Second Draft of the BREF".

287 Germany, (2002). “Comments to the Second Draft of the BREF on Textiles - Emission Concept Factor",,.

288 MCS, (2002). "Personal communication submitted by MCS about "Low liquor ratio machinery" and "New development on rinsing techniques"", 289 Comm., P., (2002). "Contribution given by Color Service about "Application of automated dosing and dispensing systems for chemicals and dyes in IPPC companies" Answer to the comments made by the TWG on the Second Draft of the BREF", 292 US Filter-Zimpro, (2002). "PACT systems",,.

293 Spain, (2002). "Comments made by Spain to the First Draft of the BREF", 294 ETAD, (2001). "Comment made by ETAD to the First Draft of the BREF", 295 Spain, (2002). "Contribution made by Spain to the Second Draft of the BREF:

"Substitution of conventional lubricants with hydrosoluble oils in knitted fabric manufacturing"",.

297 Germany, (2002). "Contribution by Germany after the second TWG meeting - Answers to open questions on "Alkali Clearable Dyestuffs", "Sulphur Dyestuffs", "Hot rinsing of reactive dyestuffs", "Econtrol process"", 298 Dyechem Pharma, (2001). "Textile Softeners",,.

299 Environment Daily 1054, (2001). “MEPs demand broad flame retardant ban Environment Daily 06/09/01" Environment Daily,,.

301 CIA, C. I. A., (2002). "Comments made by CIA on the Second Draft of the BREF", 302 VITO, (2002). "Information provided by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about Flame Retardants", 303 Ullmann's (2001). "Flame retardants".

304 Danish EPA, C. L., S. Lokke, et al., (1999). "Brominated Flame Retardants - Substance Flow analysis and Assessment of Alternatives", Environment Project 494.

308 Spain, (2002). "Attachment to comments made by Spain to the Second Draft of the BREF - Annex I - Contribution for Chapter 4",.

311 Portugal, (2002). "Comments made by Portugal to the Second Draft of the BREF",

–  –  –

312 ANT, A. T. I., (2002). "Urea consumption levels collected in three printing houses in Italy for silk and viscose", 313 BIOFL-UV, (2002). "Textile water recycling by means of bio-flotation and UV irradiation treatments - Proposal for financial support from the EC for SME specific measures COOPERATIVE RESEARCH CRAFT",.

314 L. Bettens, (2002). "Information submitted by L. Bettens on behalf of VITO about "Combined biological, physical and chemical treatment of mixed waste water effluent "", 315 EURATEX, (2002). "Data submitted by EURATEX - Share of the EU-15 Textile and

Clothing Industry Sector in the Manufacturing Industry (data 2000 source:

EUROSTAT)", 316 Sweden, (2001). "Comments made by Sweden to the First Draft of the BREF", 317 Comm., P., (2002). "Information submitted by Wooltech - Economic data for the Wooltech Technology", 318 Sperotto Rimar, (2002). "Comments made by Sperotto Rimar - Italy to the Second Draft of the BREF", 319 Sweden, (2002). "Comments made by Sweden to the Second Draft of the BREF", 320 Comm., P., (2002). "Information provided by Germany - "Lanaset TOP" process", 321 CEN Draft, (1999). "European Standard Draft prEN 13725 - Air quality Determination of odour concentration by dynamic olfactomethy",.

–  –  –

8 ANNEX I TEXTILE AUXILIARIES

8.1 Surfactants The description of surfactants in this section is somehow anomalous because they do not represent a category of auxiliaries, but rather a category of organic compounds. The reason for dedicating a section to these compounds is that they are used in the textile industry for many different purposes (e.g. lubricants, antistatics, wetting agents, etc.). Dealing with them in a common section such as this avoids repetitions in other parts of this annex.

Surfactants can be the essential active substance in a textile auxiliary or can be used as additives in the formulation of auxiliaries, dyes, printing pastes, coating pastes (e.g. dispersing agents in dyestuffs, emulsifiers in preparation agents, etc.).

The surfactants used in the textile industry are classified under four major headings, namely:

scouring agents, dye bath additives, softeners and antistatic agents.

Surfactants are organic polar compounds containing in their molecule at least one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic group. According to their chemical structure, surfactants are classified as non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric.

Non-ionic surfactants Non-ionic surfactants are widely used in the textile industry for various purposes (e.g. as

washing/ dispersing agents, as levelling agents, etc.). Some examples of commonly used nonionic surfactants are:

· fatty alcohol ethoxylates · fatty amines ethoxylates · fatty acids ethoxylates · triglyceride ethoxylates · alkylphenol ethoxylates · ethylene oxide/propylene oxide adducts.

Ethoxylated fatty alcohols, acids and triglycerides are generally easy to biodegrade. On the other hand, ethylene oxide/propylene oxide adducts, fatty amines and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO) are examples of surfactants that are difficult to biodegrade and, due to their solubility in water, are also difficult to eliminate.

The APEO in particular and the well-known nonyl phenol ethoxylates (NPE), which are the most commonly used surfactants in the group of alkyl phenol ethoxylates, pose serious environmental concerns. APEO degrade by stepwise removal of the ethoxy groups. In this way they form the corresponding alkyl phenols, which are bioaccumulative due to their lipophilic character and poor degradability. Alkyl phenols (particularly octyl- and nonyl phenols) are highly toxic to aquatic life and are reported to influence the reproduction of aquatic species by disrupting the endocrine system.

Even with highly effective effluent treatment systems, which allow only trivial amounts of APEO or their metabolites to enter the aquatic environment, concerns arise from the resultant sludge. Unless these sludge are subject to treatments such as incineration or pyrolisis, capable of destroying the organic material, the APEO or their metabolites may enter surface water or groundwaters in run-off from composting, spreading of treated or untreated sludge on agricultural land, or in leachate from landfill.

Several countries have already placed restrictions on the use of NPE. Moreover, these surfactants are on the list of "Priority Hazardous Substances" targeted for priority regulatory action under the Water Framework Directive.

–  –  –

Anionic surfactants

Anionic surfactants commonly used in textile processing are:



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 71 | 72 || 74 | 75 |   ...   | 83 |


Similar works:

«Department of Computer science and Electronics Mälardalen International Master Academy (MIMA) Master Thesis, D-Level Examiner: Peter Funk, peter.funk@mdh.se Supervisor: Mobyen Uddin Ahmed, mobyen.ahmed@mdh.se Textual CBR system using domain specific ontology Author YuLei Xu 810323-3816 yxu05002@student.mdh.se I Abstract Knowledge/Experience sharing and reusing are becoming more and more important due to lots of information and technical knowledge that we used nowadays. Case Base Reasoning...»

«LATERALITY, 2004, 9 (2), 189±199 Right±left and the scrotum in Greek sculpture I. C. McManus University College London, UK The scrotum in humans is asymmetric, the right testicle being visibly higher than the left in most men. Paradoxically, it is also the case that the right testicle is somewhat larger, rather than smaller, as might be expected. Greek classical and pre-classical art, which took great care in its attention to anatomical detail, correctly portrayed the right testicle as the...»

«Analysis of Milling Stability by the Chebyshev Collocation Method: Algorithm and Optimal Stable Immersion Levels Eric A. Butcher and Oleg A. Bobrenkov Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering New Mexico State University Las Cruces NM 88001 Ed Bueler Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks AK 99775 Praveen Nindujarla Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Alaska Fairbanks Fairbanks AK 99775 Abstract In this paper the dynamic...»

«REGULATORY MECHANISMS FOR TEXTBOOKS AND PARALLEL TEXTBOOKS TAUGHT IN SCHOOLS OUTSIDE THE GOVERNMENT SYSTEM A REPORT Committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education Ministry of Human Resource Development Government of India CABE COMMITTEE ON REGULATORY MECHANISMS FOR TEXTBOOKS AND PARALLEL TEXTBOOKS TAUGHT IN SCHOOLS OUTSIDE THE GOVERNMENT SYSTEM Table of Contents Acknowledgements Executive Summary 1. Introduction and Terms of Reference 1 2. Policies, Curricula, Syllabi and Textbooks 6 3....»

«15 PART 2 Proceedings and recommendations of regional workshops on credit and microfinance needs for sustainable use of inland fishery resources and poverty alleviation Part 2 – Proceedings and recommendations of regional workshops 17 1. Regional Workshop on Microfinance and Credit Programmes in Support of Responsible Inland Capture Fisheries Practices for Sustainable Use of Inland Fishery Resources 26-30 APRIL 2004, KUALA LUMPUR, MALAYSIA 1.1 PURPOSE The Regional Workshop on Microfinance and...»

«© Copyright, Princeton University Press. No part of this book may be distributed, posted, or reproduced in any form by digital or mechanical means without prior written permission of the publisher. CHAPTER 1 West and East The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is foremost an American fairy tale. The story, briefly, is about how Dorothy, a young Kansas girl, is displaced by a midwestern cyclone, deposited in the land of the Munchkins, and searches for the Wonderful Wizard of Emerald City in Oz, who, she...»

«NATURAL DYEING OF TEXTILES Introduction Dyeing is an ancient art which predates written records. It was practised during the Bronze age in Europe. Primitive dyeing techniques included sticking plants to fabric or rubbing crushed pigments into cloth. The methods became more sophisticated with time and techniques using natural dyes from crushed fruits, berries and other plants, which were boiled into the fabric and gave light and water fastness (resistance), were developed. Some of the well known...»

«Origin Tracking + Text Differencing = Textual Model Differencing Riemer van Rozen1(B) and Tijs van der Storm2,3 Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands rozen@cwi.nl Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract. In textual modeling, models are created through an intermediate parsing step which maps textual representations to Abstract model structures. Therefore, the identify of elements...»

«Guidelines for managing the endangered Growling Grass Frog in urbanising landscapes Geoffrey Heard, Michael Scroggie and Nick Clemann Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research Technical Series No. 208 Guidelines for managing the endangered Growling Grass Frog in urbanising landscapes Geoffrey Heard, Michael Scroggie and Nick Clemann Arthur Rylah Institute for Environmental Research 123 Brown Street, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 August 2010 In partnership with: Victorian Department of...»

«© Copyright, Princeton University Press. No part of this book may be distributed, posted, or reproduced in any form by digital or mechanical means without prior written permission of the publisher. CHAPTER ONE The Perils of Eloquence Y’a d’la parole dans leux ventre p’us qu’dans l’Encirclopédie. (There are more words in their lungs than in the Encyclopedia.) —Chanson poissarde (1789) E arly in the spring of 1793, at the height of the revolutionary crisis in France, a middle-aged...»

«Small Polyhedron Reconnection: A New Way to Eliminate Poorly-Shaped Tetrahedra Jianfei Liu and Shuli Sun 1 LTCS, Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China Abstract. Local transformation, or topological reconnection, is one of effective procedures of mesh improvement method, especially for three-dimensional tetrahedral mesh. Although the existing local transformations such as 2-3/3-2 flip are effective in removing...»

«Trade Marks Journal No: 1766, 10/10/2016 Class 30 1669837 28/03/2008 REPURIA AGRO FOODS (PVT) LTD trading as ;REPURIA AGRO FOODS (PVT) LTD BAH ROAD FATEHABAD AGRA UP MANUFACTURER & TRADERS Address for service in India/Agents address: SANTOSH CHANDRA GUPTA CENTRAL TRADEMARK CO., 31/44, 1ST FLOOR, MANDIR MARKET, RAWAT PARA, AGRA (U.P.) Used Since :20/12/2006 DELHI FLOUR & PREPARATION INCLUDED IN CLASS 30. Trade Marks Journal No: 1766, 10/10/2016 Class 30 1771286 06/01/2009 LAXMI SNACKS PVT....»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.sa.i-pdf.info - Abstracts, books, theses

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.