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«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 ...»

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4.6.17 Emission reduction in dyeing wool with metal-complex dyestuffs

4.6.18 Use of liposomes as auxiliaries in wool dyeing

4.6.19 Equipment optimisation in batch dyeing

4.6.20 Equipment optimisation applied to winch beck dyeing machines

4.6.21 Equipment optimisation applied to jet dyeing machines

4.6.22 Water re-use/recycling in batch dyeing processes

4.7 Printing

4.7.1 Urea substitution and/or reduction in reactive printing

4.7.2 Reactive two-step printing

4.7.3 Pigment printing pastes with optimised environmental performance

4.7.4 Volume minimisation of printing paste supply systems in rotary screen printing machines

4.7.5 Recovery of printing paste from supply system in rotary screen printing machines.......364 4.7.6 Recycling of residual printing pastes

4.7.7 Reduction of water consumption in cleaning operations

4.7.8 Digital jet printing of carpet and bulky fabric

4.7.9 Ink-jet digital printing for flat fabric

4.8 Finishing

4.8.1 Minimisation of energy consumption of stenter frames

4.8.2 Formaldehyde-free or formaldehyde-poor easy-care finishing agents

4.8.3 Avoiding batch softening

4.8.4 Minimisation of emissions in the application of mothproofing agents

4.9 Washing

4.9.1 Water & energy conservation in batch washing and rinsing

4.9.2 Water & energy conservation in continuous washing and rinsing

4.9.3 Use of fully closed-loop installations for fabric washing (scouring) with organic solvent

4.10 Final effluent/emission abatement techniques

4.10.1 Treatment of textile waste water in activated sludge system with low food-to-micro organisms ratio (F/M)

4.10.2 Treatment of mixed waste water with about 60 % water recycling

Textiles Industry xxvii 4.10.3 Combined biological physical and chemical treatment of mixed waste water effluent.. 419 4.10.4 Recycling of textile waste water by treatment of selected streams with membrane techniques

4.10.5 Treatment and recovery of waste water containing pigment paste

4.10.6 Anaerobic removal of residual dyestuff from padding liquors and printing paste residues

4.10.7 Treatment of selected and segregated, non-biodegradable waste water stream by chemical oxidation

4.10.8 Waste water treatment by flocculation/precipitation and incineration of the resulting sludge

4.10.9 Air emission abatement techniques

4.10.10 Waste water treatment in wool scouring installations

4.10.11 Disposal of wool scouring sludge to agricultural land

4.10.12 Use of wool scour sludge in brick-making

5 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES

5.1 Generic BAT (whole textile industry)

5.2 Process-integrated measures for unit processes and operations

5.2.1 Wool scouring

5.2.2 Textile finishing and carpet industry

5.3 Effluent treatment and waste disposal

6 EMERGING TECHNIQUES

7 CONCLUDING REMARKS

7.1 Timing of the work

7.2 Source of information

7.3 Level of consensus

7.4 Recommendations for future work

7.5 Suggested topics for future R & D projects

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

8 ANNEX I TEXTILE AUXILIARIES

8.1 Surfactants

8.2 Auxiliaries and finishing agents for fibre and yarn manufacturing

8.2.1 Spinning solution additives, spinning additives and spinning bath additives................. 486 8.2.2 Preparation agents for primary spinning

8.2.3 Preparation agents for secondary spinning (conditioning agents and spinning lubricants)

8.2.4 Coning oils, warping and twisting oils

8.2.5 Knitting oils

8.3 Sizing agents

8.4 Detergents/ wetting agents

8.5 Auxiliaries containing sequestering agents

8.6 Dyeing auxiliaries

8.6.1 General characteristics and environmental aspects

8.6.2 Wetting, penetrating and de-aerating agents

8.6.3 Dispersing agents

8.6.4 Levelling agents

8.6.5 Acid donors

8.6.6 Antifoaming agents

8.6.7 Carriers

8.7 Printing auxiliaries

8.7.1 Auxiliaries for dye printing

8.7.2 Auxiliaries for pigment printing

8.8 Finishing auxiliaries

8.8.1 Easy-care finishing agents

8.8.2 Biocides

8.8.3 Antistatic agents

8.8.4 Flame-retardants

8.8.5 Hydrophobic/ Oleophobic agents

xxviii Textiles Industry 8.8.6 Softeners

8.9 Coating compounds and auxiliaries

9 ANNEX II DYES AND PIGMENTS

9.1 Acid dyes

9.2 Basic (cationic) dyes

9.3 Direct (substantive) dyes

9.4 Disperse dyes

9.5 Metal-complex dyes

9.6 Mordant dyes (chrome dyes)

9.7 Naphthol dyes (azoic dyes developed on the fibre)

9.8 Reactive dyes

9.9 Sulphur dyes

9.10 Vat dyes

9.11 Pigments

10 ANNEX III WET PROCESSES: MACHINERY AND TECHNIQUES

10.1 Loose fibre

10.1.1 Autoclave

10.2 Yarn

10.2.1 Hank dyeing machines

10.2.2 Package dyeing machines

10.3 Fabric in rope form

10.3.1 Batch processes

10.3.2 Continuous processes

10.4 Fabric in open-width

10.4.1 Batch processes

10.4.2 Semi-continuous and continuous processes





11 ANNEX IV: TYPICAL RECIPES (WITH SOME ASSOCIATED EMISSION

FACTOR) IN THE TEXTILE SECTOR

11.1 Pretreatment

11.1.1 Cotton and cotton blends

11.1.2 Viscose

11.1.3 Man-made fibres (woven and knit fabric)

11.1.4 Wool

11.2 Dyeing

11.3 Printing

11.4 Finishing

12 ANNEX V: TYPICAL POLLUTANTS (AND POTENTIAL SOURCES) IN AIR

EMISSIONS FROM TEXTILE PROCESSES

13 ANNEX VI: AUXILIARIES CLASSIFICATION TOOLS

13.1 Tegewa scheme

13.2 SCORE System

13.3 Dutch General Policy Scheme

14 ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES (FENTON REACTION)

–  –  –

Table 1.1: Share of the EU-15 textile-clothing industry in the manufacturing industry (only companies with 20 employees or more)

Table 1.2: Country breakdown of the EU-15 textile and clothing industry in 2000

Table 1.3: Wool production and wool scouring production in EU Member States

Table 1.4: Basic structure of the carpet manufacturing industry

Table 1.5: Sector Location and number of trading entities within the EU

Table 1.6: Main charging loads from textile industry in Europe

Table 2.1: Chemical composition of cotton fibre

Table 2.2: Discontinuous dyeing equipment and liquor ratios

Table 2.3: Semi-continuous and continuous dyeing processes and equipment

Table 2.4: Salt concentration required for reactive dyes

Table 2.5: Summary of the most common dyestuffs and dyeing techniques applied for cellulose fibres.

. 66 Table 2.6: Summary of the most common dyestuffs and dyeing techniques for wool fibre

Table 2.7: Summary of the most common dyestuffs and dyeing techniques for polyamide fibres.

........... 70 Table 2.8: Summary of the most common dyestuffs and dyeing techniques for polyester fibres.............. 71 Table 2.9: Summary of the most common dyestuffs and dyeing techniques for polyacrylic fibres........... 72 Table 2.10: Summary of dyestuff and dyeing techniques for polyester-cellulose blends

Table 2.11: Overview of the typical emissions generated in dyeing processes

Table 2.12: Percentage of non-fixed dye that may be discharged in the effluent for the principal classes of dyes

Table 2.13: List of carcinogenic amines

Table 2.14: Ecological properties of dye formulations additives

Table 2.15: Proportion of additives and dye in powder and liquid dyes

Table 2.16: Amount of salt employed in cotton batch dyeing processes with reactive and direct dyes.

.... 84 Table 2.17: Pollutants that are more likely to be encountered in waste water from printing processes..... 98 Table 3.1: Wool scouring process mass streams overview (fine wool)

Table 3.2: Wool scouring process mass streams overview (coarse wool)

Table 3.3: Wool scouring process mass streams overview (extra fine wool)

Table 3.4: Overview of effluent treatment processes and associated output of COD and sludge.

........... 146 Table 3.5: Average organochlorine, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid biocide content of the wools processed by 12 scourers

Table 3.6: Performance of effluent treatment plants in removing wool grease, COD, suspended solids and ectoparasiticides from woolscour effluent

Table 3.7: Sheep treatment chemical residues in incoming greasy wool and in scouring effluent discharged to sewer at six mills

Table 3.8: Estimated process input and output in the Wooltech cleaning system

Table 3.9: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from two mills mainly finishing floc material consisting of CV, PES, PAC or CO

Table 3.10: Overview of consumption and emission levels from four mills finishing WO tops/yarn.

.... 155 Table 3.11: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from four mills mainly finishing yarns consisting of CO

Table 3.12: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from eight mills mainly finishing yarns consisting of PES

Table 3.13: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from seven mills mainly finishing yarns consisting of WO/PAC/CV

Table 3.14: Sequence of discharged baths from exhaust dyeing of CV yarn with reactive dyestuffs along with values for COD, pH, conductivity, temperature and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC)

Table 3.15: Sequence of discharged baths from exhaust dyeing of PES yarn with disperse dyestuffs along with values for COD, pH, conductivity, temperature and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC)

Table 3.16: Sequence of discharged baths from exhaust dyeing of CO yarn with vat dyestuffs along with values for COD, pH, conductivity, temperature and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC)

Table 3.17: Water & energy consumption levels in loose fibre dyeing processes

Table 3.18: Water & energy consumption levels in yarn dyeing processes

Table 3.19: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from seventeen mills mainly finishing knitted fabric consisting of cotton

xxx Textiles Industry Table 3.20: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from twelve mills finishing knitted fabric consisting mainly of CO with a significant printing section

Table 3.21: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from mills finishing knitted fabric consisting mainly of synthetic fibres

Table 3.22: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from one mill finishing knitted fabric mainly consisting of wool

Table 3.23: Typical recipe for the continuous bleaching/washing of cotton knitted fabric

Table 3.24: Consumption of chemicals and associated COD values for a continuous pretreatment process (bleaching/washing) of cotton knit fabric

Table 3.25: Data for COD, pH and L for exhausted bleaching bath and rinsing water from pre- and fullbleaching with H2O2 of cotton knitted fabric; the specific waste water flow for the whole process including rinsing is 30 - 50 l/kg

Table 3.26: Data for COD, AOX, pH and conductivity for exhausted bleaching bath and rinsing water from combined bleaching of cotton knit fabric with NaOCl/H2O2 (L.

R. = 1:15) – “ITV, 1992”;

the overall specific waste water flow (for the whole process including rinsing is 30 - 50 l/kg)

Table 3.27: Typical input factors for exhaust dyeing of cotton knitted fabric with reactive dyestuffs.

....173 Table 3.28: Sequence of discharged baths from exhaust dyeing (light shade) of cotton knitted fabric with reactive dyestuffs along with values for COD, pH, conductivity and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC) L.R. = 1:25; specific water consumption for the whole process: 142 l/kg (including water consumed when loading the material and direct cooling after dyeing).........174 Table 3.29: Sequence of emitted baths from exhaust dyeing (dark shade) of cotton knit fabric with reactive dyestuffs along with values for COD, pH, conductivity and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC) L.

R. = 1:8.2; specific water consumption for the whole process: 71 l/kg.174 Table 3.30: Sequence of discharged baths from exhaust dyeing of cotton knitted fabric with direct dyestuffs (light shade) along with values for COD, AOX, pH, conductivity and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC)

Table 3.31: Sequence of discharged baths from exhaust dyeing of cotton knitted fabric with sulphur dyestuffs (dark shade) along with values for COD, AOX, pH, conductivity and colour (spectral absorption coefficients, SAC)

Table 3.32: Typical input and calculated output factors for exhaust dyeing of PES knitted fabric with disperse dyestuffs

Table 3.33: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from mills mainly finishing woven fabric consisting mainly of CO

Table 3.34: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from mills mainly finishing woven fabric consisting mainly of CO, with a significant printing section.

.182 Table 3.35: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from six mills finishing woven fabric consisting mainly of wool

Table 3.36: Concentration values and textile substrate specific emission factors for waste water from six mills finishing woven fabric consisting mainly of synthetic fibres

Table 3.37: Data on emissions to air from singeing facilities in five textile finishing mills

Table 3.38: Possible sources of air emissions during heat-setting of grey fabrics or inefficiently washed fabrics

Table 3.39: Heat-setting: process specific emission data (measured values)

Table 3.40: Specific input for water, steam and chemicals in a modern continuous pretreatment line, including desizing, scouring (padding of scouring liquor, steam treatment, washing, drying), bleaching (padding of the bleaching liquor, steaming, washing and drying

Table 3.41: Air emission data from drying and fixation after printing (measurements carried out at two finishing mills)

Table 3.42: Standard recipe for the finishing of cotton woven fabric with reactive non-iron compounds

Table 3.43: Typical finishing recipe for crease and shrink resistance

Table 3.44: Two examples for the calculation of air emission factors

Table 3.45: Thermal treatments after finishing treatments: process-specific emission data (measured data)

Table 3.46: Air emission factors from drying carrier-dyed textiles

Table 3.47: Air emission levels during drying/fixation of carrier-dyed fabrics

Table 3.48: Emission values from perchloroethylene-cleaned fabrics

Table 3.49: Air emission data from coating (measurements carried out in five finishing mills).

.............206 Table 3.50: Overview of emission and consumption levels for three typical loose fibre dyehouses........208 Table 3.51: Concentrations of compounds present on raw loose fibres, which contribute to the waste water COD load

Textiles Industry xxxi Table 3.52: Annual average pesticide content of scoured wool processed at six reference sites............. 211 Table 3.53: Overview of emission and consumption levels for four typical carpet yarn dyehouses........ 212 Table 3.54: Literature values for practical energy requirements in yarn dyeing

Table 3.55: Concentration of compounds present on raw fibre, which contribute to the waste water load

Table 3.56: Concentration values and textile substrate-specific emission factors for waste water from two carpet finishing mills



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