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«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 ...»

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The purpose of the Directive is to achieve integrated prevention and control of pollution arising from the activities listed in its Annex I, leading to a high level of protection of the environment as a whole. The legal basis of the Directive relates to environmental protection. Its implementation should also take account of other Community objectives such as the competitiveness of the Community’s industry thereby contributing to sustainable development.

More specifically, it provides for a permitting system for certain categories of industrial installations requiring both operators and regulators to take an integrated, overall look at the polluting and consuming potential of the installation. The overall aim of such an integrated approach must be to improve the management and control of industrial processes so as to ensure a high level of protection for the environment as a whole. Central to this approach is the general principle given in Article 3 that operators should take all appropriate preventative measures against pollution, in particular through the application of best available techniques enabling them to improve their environmental performance.

The term “best available techniques” is defined in Article 2(11) of the Directive as “the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for emission limit values designed to prevent and, where that is not practicable, generally to reduce emissions and the impact on the environment as a whole.” Article 2(11) goes on to

clarify further this definition as follows:

“techniques” includes both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned;

“available” techniques are those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the Member State in question, as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator;

“best” means most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole.

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Furthermore, Annex IV of the Directive contains a list of “considerations to be taken into account generally or in specific cases when determining best available techniques... bearing in mind the likely costs and benefits of a measure and the principles of precaution and prevention”.

These considerations include the information published by the Commission pursuant to Article 16(2).

Competent authorities responsible for issuing permits are required to take account of the general principles set out in Article 3 when determining the conditions of the permit. These conditions must include emission limit values, supplemented or replaced where appropriate by equivalent parameters or technical measures. According to Article 9(4) of the Directive, these emission limit values, equivalent parameters and technical measures must, without prejudice to compliance with environmental quality standards, be based on the best available techniques, without prescribing the use of any technique or specific technology, but taking into account the technical characteristics of the installation concerned, its geographical location and the local environmental conditions. In all circumstances, the conditions of the permit must include provisions on the minimisation of long-distance or transboundary pollution and must ensure a high level of protection for the environment as a whole.

Member States have the obligation, according to Article 11 of the Directive, to ensure that competent authorities follow or are informed of developments in best available techniques.

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Article 16(2) of the Directive requires the Commission to organise “an exchange of information between Member States and the industries concerned on best available techniques, associated monitoring and developments in them”, and to publish the results of the exchange.

The purpose of the information exchange is given in recital 25 of the Directive, which states that “the development and exchange of information at Community level about best available techniques will help to redress the technological imbalances in the Community, will promote the world-wide dissemination of limit values and techniques used in the Community and will help the Member States in the efficient implementation of this Directive.” The Commission (Environment DG) established an information exchange forum (IEF) to assist the work under Article 16(2) and a number of technical working groups have been established under the umbrella of the IEF. Both IEF and the technical working groups include representation from Member States and industry as required in Article 16(2).

The aim of this series of documents is to reflect accurately the exchange of information which has taken place as required by Article 16(2) and to provide reference information for the permitting authority to take into account when determining permit conditions. By providing relevant information concerning best available techniques, these documents should act as valuable tools to drive environmental performance.

4. Information Sources

This document represents a summary of information collected from a number of sources, including in particular the expertise of the groups established to assist the Commission in its work, and verified by the Commission services. All contributions are gratefully acknowledged.

5. How to understand and use this document

The information provided in this document is intended to be used as an input to the determination of BAT in specific cases. When determining BAT and setting BAT-based permit conditions, account should always be taken of the overall goal to achieve a high level of protection for the environment as a whole.

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The rest of this section describes the type of information that is provided in each section of the document.

Chapters 1 and 2 provide general information on the industrial sector concerned and on the industrial processes used within the sector. Chapter 3 provides data and information concerning current emission and consumption levels reflecting the situation in existing installations at the time of writing.

Chapter 4 describes in more detail the emission reduction and other techniques that are considered to be most relevant for determining BAT and BAT-based permit conditions. This information includes the consumption and emission levels considered achievable by using the technique, some idea of the costs and the cross-media issues associated with the technique, and the extent to which the technique is applicable to the range of installations requiring IPPC permits, for example new, existing, large or small installations. Techniques that are generally seen as obsolete are not included.

Chapter 5 presents the techniques and the emission and consumption levels that are considered to be compatible with BAT in a general sense. The purpose is thus to provide general indications regarding the emission and consumption levels that can be considered as an appropriate reference point to assist in the determination of BAT-based permit conditions or for the establishment of general binding rules under Article 9(8). It should be stressed, however, that this document does not propose emission limit values. The determination of appropriate permit conditions will involve taking account of local, site-specific factors such as the technical characteristics of the installation concerned, its geographical location and the local environmental conditions. In the case of existing installations, the economic and technical viability of upgrading them also needs to be taken into account. Even the single objective of ensuring a high level of protection for the environment as a whole will often involve making trade-off judgements between different types of environmental impact, and these judgements will often be influenced by local considerations.

Although an attempt is made to address some of these issues, it is not possible for them to be considered fully in this document. The techniques and levels presented in Chapter 5 will therefore not necessarily be appropriate for all installations. On the other hand, the obligation to ensure a high level of environmental protection including the minimisation of long-distance or transboundary pollution implies that permit conditions cannot be set on the basis of purely local considerations. It is therefore of the utmost importance that the information contained in this document is fully taken into account by permitting authorities.

Since the best available techniques change over time, this document will be reviewed and updated as appropriate. All comments and suggestions should be made to the European IPPC

Bureau at the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies at the following address:

Edificio Expo, Inca Garcilaso s/n, E-41092 Seville, Spain Telephone: +34 95 4488 284 Fax: +34 95 4488 426 e-mail: eippcb@jrc.es Internet: http://eippcb.jrc.es

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1.1 Wool scouring sector

1.1.1 Sector organisation

1.1.2 Production and economics

1.2 Textile finishing sector (excluding floor covering)

1.2.1 Sector organisation

1.2.2 Production and economics

1.3 Carpet

1.3.1 Sector organisation

1.3.2 Production and economics

1.4 Main environmental issues


2.1 Raw materials

2.1.1 Fibres

2.1.2 Chemicals & auxiliaries

2.1.3 Materials handling and storage

2.2 Fibre manufacturing: chemical (man-made) fibres

2.3 Fibre preparation: natural fibres

2.3.1 Wool

2.3.2 Cotton and flax

2.3.3 Silk

2.4 Yarn manufacturing

2.4.1 The wool spinning process

2.4.2 The cotton spinning process

2.4.3 Environmental issues

2.5 Cloth production

2.5.1 Woven textiles

2.5.2 Knitted textiles

2.5.3 Textile floor-coverings

2.5.4 Non-woven textiles

2.6 Pretreatment

2.6.1 Pretreatment of cotton & cellulose fibres

2.6.2 Wool preparation before colouring

2.6.3 Pretreatment of silk

2.6.4 Pretreatment of synthetic material

2.7 Dyeing

2.7.1 General principles of dyeing

2.7.2 Dyeing processes

2.7.3 Cellulose fibres dyeing

2.7.4 Wool dyeing

2.7.5 Silk dyeing

2.7.6 Synthetic fibres dyeing

2.7.7 Fibre blends dyeing

2.7.8 Environmental issues

2.8 Printing

2.8.1 Printing processes

2.8.2 Printing technology

2.8.3 Environmental issues

2.9 Finishing (functional finishing)

2.9.1 Finishing processes

2.9.2 Chemical finishing treatments

2.9.3 Environmental issues

2.10 Coating and laminating

Textiles Industry xxv 2.10.1 Coating and laminating processes

2.10.2 Environmental issues

2.11 Carpet back-coating

2.12 Washing

2.12.1 Washing with water

2.12.2 Dry cleaning

2.13 Drying

2.13.1 Loose fibre drying

2.13.2 Hanks drying

2.13.3 Yarn packages drying

2.13.4 Fabric drying

2.14 Textiles industry categories

2.14.1 Wool Scouring Mills

2.14.2 Mills finishing yarn and/or floc

2.14.3 Mills finishing knitted fabric

2.14.4 Mills finishing woven fabric

2.14.5 The Carpet industry


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Wool scouring mills

3.2.1 Cleaning and washing with water

3.2.2 Cleaning and washing with solvent

3.3 Textile finishing industry

3.3.1 Mills finishing yarn and/or floc

3.3.2 Mills finishing knitted fabric

3.3.3 Mills finishing woven fabric

3.4 Carpet industry

3.4.1 Wool and wool-blend carpet yarn dyehouses

3.4.2 Integrated carpet manufacturing companies

3.5 General issues concerning odour nuisances in the textile industry

3.6 General issues concerning solid & liquid wastes generated in the textile industry................. 224 4 TECHNIQUES TO CONSIDER IN THE DETERMINATION OF BAT..................227

4.1 General good management practices

4.1.1 Management and good housekeeping

4.1.2 Input/output streams evaluation/inventory

4.1.3 Automated preparation and dispensing of chemicals

4.1.4 Optimising water consumption in textile operations

4.1.5 Insulation of High Temperature (HT) machines

4.2 Quality management of incoming fibre

4.2.1 Man-made fibre preparation agents with improved environmental performance........... 243 4.2.2 Mineral oils substitution in wool spinning lubricants

4.2.3 Mineral oils substitution in knitted fabric manufacturing

4.2.4 Selection of sizing agents with improved environmental performance

4.2.5 Minimising sizing agent add-on by pre-wetting the warp yarns

4.2.6 Use of techniques that allow reduced load of sizing agents on the fibre (compact spinning)

4.2.7 Minimising residues of organochlorine ectoparasiticides in the raw material by substitution

4.2.8 Minimising residues of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid ectoparasiticides in the raw material by substitution

4.3 Selection/ substitution of chemicals used

4.3.1 Selection of textile dyes and auxiliaries according to their waste water relevance......... 260 4.3.2 Emission factor concept (emissions to air)

4.3.3 Substitution for alkylphenol ethoxylates (and other hazardous surfactants)

4.3.4 Selection of biodegradable/bioeliminable complexing agents in pretreatment and dyeing processes

4.3.5 Selection of antifoaming agents with improved environmental performance................. 270

4.4 Wool scouring

4.4.1 Use of integrated dirt removal/grease recovery loops

4.4.2 Use of integrated dirt removal/grease recovery loops combined with evaporation of the effluent and incineration of the sludge

xxvi Textiles Industry 4.4.3 Minimising energy consumption in wool scouring installations

4.4.4 Wool scouring with organic solvent

4.5 Pretreatment

4.5.1 Recovery of sizing agents by ultrafiltration

4.5.2 Application of the oxidative route for efficient, universal size removal

4.5.3 One-step desizing, scouring and bleaching of cotton fabric

4.5.4 Enzymatic scouring

4.5.5 Substitution for sodium hypochlorite and chlorine-containing compounds in bleaching operations

4.5.6 Minimising consumption of complexing agents in hydrogen peroxide bleaching..........295 4.5.7 Recovery of alkali from mercerising

4.5.8 Optimisation of cotton warp yarn pretreatment

4.6 Dyeing

4.6.1 Exhaust dyeing of polyester and polyester blends with carrier-free dyeing techniques or with use of environmentally optimised carriers

4.6.2 Use of non-carrier dyeable PES fibres

4.6.3 Dispersing agents with higher bioeliminability in dye formulations

4.6.4 One-step continuous vat dyeing in pastel to pale shades

4.6.5 Aftertreatment in PES dyeing

4.6.6 Dyeing with sulphur dyes

4.6.7 Minimisation of dye liquor losses in pad dyeing techniques

4.6.8 Enzymatic after-soaping in reactive dyeing

4.6.9 Silicate-free fixation method for cold pad batch dyeing

4.6.10 Exhaust dyeing of cellulosic fibres with high-fixation polyfunctional reactive dyestuffs

4.6.11 Exhaust dyeing with low-salt reactive dyes

4.6.12 Omitting the use of detergents in afterwashing of cotton dyed with reactive dyes.........324 4.6.13 Alternative process for continuous (and semicontinuous) dyeing of cellulosic fabric with reactive dyes

4.6.14 pH-controlled dyeing techniques

4.6.15 Low-chrome and ultra-low-chrome afterchroming methods for wool

4.6.16 Chromium-free dyeing of wool

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