«EUROPEAN COMMISSION Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textiles Industry July 2003 ...»
Operational data No information was made available.
Cross-media effects None believed likely.
Applicability Applicability is proved for pure cotton yarns. It has to be taken into account that the appearance and technological properties of compact spinning yarns (and fabrics made of them) are different from those of conventional manufactured yarns. The lower hairiness of the yarns is an undesired effect in the case of yarns produced for knitted goods.
Adaptation of existing spinning machines is partially possible [179, UBA, 2001].
Economics Additional costs in yarn manufacturing are partially or totally offset by cost savings in the weaving mill, due to higher weaving efficiency and reduced size add-on. Reduced costs in finishing are expected (e.g. lower waste water treatment cost due to the lower amount of sizing agents).
Driving force for implementation A better yarn quality and the possibility to create new effects/designs are the main reasons for installing compact spinning machines.
Reference plants At present about 250000 spindles are installed, mostly in Italy (“ITV, 2001”).
Compact spinning machines are manufactured by · Rieter Textile Systems, CH-Winterthur · Zinser Textilmaschinen, D-Ebersbach · Spindelfabrik Süssen, D-Süssen Reference literature [77, EURATEX, 2000], [179, UBA, 2001]
4.2.7 Minimising residues of organochlorine ectoparasiticides in the raw material by substitution Description Organochlorine ectoparasiticides may still be used, legally or illegally, for the treatment of sheep in some countries. The OCs are toxic in the environment, persistent and bioaccumulative.
They are likely to have long-range effects and as such are the most hazardous ectoparasiticides found on wool. Several OCs are also suspected of having endocrine disrupting effects.
OCs are not used for sheep treatment in the mainstream wool producing and exporting countries. Wool from these countries may, however, contain OC pesticides at the trace levels consistent with contamination from background sources. Secondary sources of wool supply, from which OCs have not been eliminated, include Argentina, the Czech Republic, France, Spain, Turkey and the former Soviet States. At the present time the geographic source of the fibre is therefore the most reliable guide to its likely OC pesticide content.
A number of organisations maintain information on the pesticide content of greasy and scoured wool. Manufacturers can use this information to avoid processing suspect wool unless an analytical certificate showing its OC content to be less than 1 mg/kg is provided by the owner of the wool. In this way, the market for contaminated wool will be undermined and those wool producers still using OCs for sheep treatment will desist. In the absence of information, samples should be assayed to confirm their pesticide content, but this option entails higher costs for the manufacturer.
In wool dyehouses, the wool scouring process removes a significant proportion of the OCs present on greasy wool as these compounds partition with the wool grease into solid and liquid wastes arising from the scouring process (see Sections 18.104.22.168 and 3.2.1). Scoured wool thus contains less than 10 % of the original greasy wool pesticide burden.
Wool which is scoured to a low residual grease content would be expected to contain the lowest levels of OCs. There are, however, practical limits to the efficiency with which wool can be scoured and in some cases it is desirable to retain some lanolin on the fibre to aid further mechanical processing. Scoured wool with a residual grease content of between 0.4 and 1.0 % is generally regarded as optimal. Fibre with a residual grease content significantly higher than 1 % is unlikely to have passed through an efficiently operated scour and manufacturers should avoid using such materials, even as a small proportion of a blend, unless the pesticide content can be confirmed by analysis.
Main achieved environmental benefits
Emissions of OCs in waste water from wool scouring, dyeing and finishing operations, and from sewage works receiving textile effluents will be reduced. The environmental concentrations of OCs in surface waters receiving treated effluent will also fall. The concentrations in sewage sludge are also likely to fall.
The effectiveness of control measures can be judged by the following UK example. The River Calder in West Yorkshire receives treated textile effluents from the Dewsbury Sewage treatment works. This works receives waste water from ten dyehouses processing wool carpet fibre, two wool scouring companies and a fellmonger. The river is monitored regularly for compliance with EU Environmental Quality Standards.
Table 4.6 indicates river water concentrations (ng/l) downstream of the sewage works as reported by the regulator (Environment Agency) in the two years to June 2000.
These data indicate that measures employed by the textile industry (and others) in this catchment area are sufficient to reduce emissions of OCs to below the limit of detection, and within EU Environmental Quality Standards.
Table 4.6: Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in the River Calder below Dewsbury Sewage Treatment Works (UK).
Data for 2 years to June 2000 Operational data The occurrence of OCs in mill waste water depends on the mix of fibre being processed at any given time and is therefore likely to be highly irregular. In the majority of cases concentrations will be below the limit of reliable analytical detection. Analysis of mill effluents is, therefore, unlikely to provide a realistic estimate of releases. Monitoring of raw materials for the presence of OCs would provide a more realistic means of controlling inputs and hence outputs from the process stream.
At the present time individual batch testing of small fibre lots is not viable. However, information is available from a number of sources on the average OC content of wools from different geographic locations. Manufacturers should monitor the underlying trends in these data to avoid processing potentially contaminated wool.
Cross-media effects Effects on all media are expected to be positive.
Applicability This technique can be applied by all manufacturers who purchase their own raw materials and by commission scouring and finishing mills with the co-operation of their clients.
However, if mills are to be required to turn away business, they must be assured of a level playing field, i.e. that the measure will be adopted and enforced throughout the European Union.
UK mills currently minimise their release of the organochlorine compounds known to be present on wool from some sources by selective purchase or, if the source is suspect, by certification. This strategy has proved successful, particularly in the case of companies who purchase their own raw materials. Although further down the supply chain, commission companies are able to regulate their incoming material quality by requesting data from suppliers.
Substituting one supply source for another on the basis of pesticide content may have major cost implications for the industry. Maintaining a profitable business partially depends on striking a balance between these two factors and purchasing wool with the correct technical specification (fibre diameter, fibre length, colour, etc.) at the most economic price.
For merchants and topmakers the cost of sampling and analysing a wool batch of, say, 10 tonnes would be approximately 200 euros or 0.02 euros/kg. There would possibly be expensive logistical problems for wool batches which tested above the limit. The solution for the importer would be to insert appropriate conditions into his contract and to have the wool sampled and analysed before export from the country of origin. Quality assured sampling, analysis and certification would be essential.
This cost would eventually reduce to zero, as the technique has its effect in discouraging the use of OCs for sheep treatment in wool-producing countries and it becomes possible to assume that fewer and fewer sources are producing wools potentially contaminated with OCs.
Driving force for implementation The driving forces are prevention of aquatic pollution and long-range effects, an increase in the probability that sludge can safely be disposed of to agriculture, and a reduction of OCs in wool grease.
Reference plants The selective processing and purchase of wool to control OC emissions is already practised by UK wool scouring companies and wool dyers.
CSIRO in Australia is promoting testing and certification schemes in order to allow European processors to purchase Australian wool with confidence.
Reference literature [32, ENco, 2001], [187, INTERLAINE, 1999], [97, CSIRO, 2000], [202, Ian M. Russel, 2000].
4.2.8 Minimising residues of organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid ectoparasiticides in the raw material by substitution Description Other compounds, typified by the OPs and SPs used legally in animal husbandry, are more difficult to manage by substitution than OCs. The occurrence of OP and SP pesticides in mill waste water will depend on the mix of fibre being processed at any given time and as such is likely to be highly irregular. Waste water concentrations may be below the limit of reliable analytical detection. Monitoring of raw materials for the presence of OPs and SPs would provide a more realistic means of controlling inputs and hence outputs from the process stream.
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Chapter 4Wool from some minor sources is known to be essentially free of OP and SP residues, either because these materials are not available in those countries or because the climate or local practice dictates that they are not used. The quantities of fibre available from these sources are small and opportunities to increase production to meet global market demand is limited.
Widespread substitution using wool from these sources is not considered viable.
In mainstream wool producing countries the competent bodies responsible for wool production and marketing have recognised the importance of minimising OP and SP residues by good flock management, controlled application procedures and the use of recommended withholding periods between sheep treatment and wool harvesting. At the time of writing, co-operation programmes with leading grower countries have resulted in a progressive reduction of the mean OP and SP residues on wool. The industry continues to develop these strategies, which may in time lead to the widespread availability of low pesticide wool lots, perhaps supported by certification.
Manufacturers should encourage the development of low pesticide residue wool by continued dialogue with the major producer countries.
Main achieved environmental benefits Emissions of OPs and SPs in waste water from dyeing and finishing operations and from sewage works receiving textile effluents will be reduced. The environmental concentrations of these compounds in surface waters receiving treated effluent will also fall, likewise the concentrations in sewage sludge.
At the present time there is no widespread selection of wool on the basis of OP and SP pesticide content. It could be said, therefore, that there is no direct operational experience at the time of writing [32, ENco, 2001]. However, the sector acting through trade associations and wool promotion bodies has influenced the wool production industries of major producing countries to the extent that the majority now have in place pesticide reduction programmes, which are progressively reducing average clip concentrations.
A low-residue certification scheme is, for example, currently promoted by CSIRO Textile and Fibre Technology in Australia.
The resources required to achieve a reduction in average clip concentration are considerable, but the effectiveness of this strategy can be illustrated by reference to data on the average OP and SP content of the Australia and New Zealand wool clip in recent years (see figures below).
Figure 4.4: Residues on Australian fleece wool 1996 to 1999 [202, Ian M.
8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00
Figure 4.5: Average pesticide residues in New Zealand greasy wool 1994 to 2000 [32, ENco, 2001] Cross-media effects Effects on all media are expected to be positive.
Applicability These measures can be adopted by all manufacturers who purchase their own raw materials and by commission processors with the co-operation of their clients.
Economics Wool price has a very significant influence on the overall economics of yarn production. Yarn manufacturers (both sales yarn spinners and integrated mills) select wool on both technical merit and price. Maintaining a profitable business partially depends on striking a balance between these two factors and purchasing wool with the correct technical specification (fibre diameter, fibre length, colour, etc.) at the most economic price. Substituting one supply source for another on the basis of pesticide content may have major cost implications for the industry [32, ENco, 2001].
Reference literature [32, ENco, 2001], [97, CSIRO, 2000], [202, Ian M. Russel, 2000].
4.3 Selection/ substitution of chemicals used 4.3.1 Selection of textile dyes and auxiliaries according to their waste water relevance Description During the past 15 years, various schemes have been developed for ecotoxicological assessment and classification. These include the Dutch General Assessment Methodology in the Netherlands (RIZA-Concept), the SCORE-System in Denmark, the BEWAG-Concept in Switzerland and the TEGEWA scheme developed in Germany by industry in collaboration with authorities.
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Chapter 4Three of these schemes — the TEGEWA scheme, the SCORE-System and the Dutch General Assessment Methodology — have been proposed by the German, Danish and Dutch TWG members, respectively, as techniques to be considered in the determination of BAT. All three methods are presented in Section 13 (extracts of submitted documents).
Main achieved environmental benefits All three sources regard the proposed schemes as useful tools that allow the user to select textile dyes and auxiliaries for ecotoxicological aspects. Indirect benefits for water quality are therefore expected, although difficult to quantify/evaluate.
According to TEGEWA, the introduction of the method in Germany in 1998 has produced a reduction in the consumption of Class III products (products with “High relevance to waste water, according to TEGEWA classification scheme). This is shown in the table below.
Table 4.7: Textile auxiliaries sold in Germany from 1997 to 2000: number, quantity and percentage of textile auxiliaries in classes I, II, III, according to TEGEWA [179, UBA, 2001] Cross-media effects None believed likely according to both sources.
However, some considerations are worth