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«Phosphate: A Florida Resource Mined for Math A middle school grade level unit created by Donna Ellis Lake Alfred Middle School Polk County, FL 2012, ...»

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Phosphate: A Florida Resource Mined for Math

A middle school grade level unit

created by

Donna Ellis

Lake Alfred Middle School

Polk County, FL

2012, FLORIDA INDUSTRIAL AND PHOSPHATE RESEARCH INSTITUTE

1855 West Main Street • Bartow, FL 33830-7718

(863) 534-7160 • Fax (863) 534-7165 • www.fipr.state.fl.us

Phosphate: A Florida Resource Mined for Math 2

DISCLAIMER

The contents of this teaching unit are reproduced herein as received from the teachers who authored the unit. The unit has been peer-reviewed and edited in compliance with the FIPR Institute Education Program lesson plan style.

Mention of company names or products does not constitute endorsement by the Florida Industrial and Phosphate Research Institute.

FLORIDA INDUSTRIAL AND PHOSPHATE RESEARCH INSTITUTE

Phosphate: A Florida Resource Mined for Math 3 Unit Summary Dear Colleague, The purpose of this real-world based unit is to create a cooperative environment to study in our students’ own back yard. In our case, this included the Green Swamp in and around Polk City and the phosphate industry in Polk County.

As a team, the language arts, science, social studies and math teachers coordinated our lesson plans so that what was being studied in one class might be practically applied to another. The plans were carefully organized to incorporate and bring to life what our students see every day.

This five month long math unit began in January with the introduction of angles. Over the course of the lessons, which were alternated between more standardized lesson plans, the

students learned:

 Angles  Surveying  Graphing  Grid work  Higher level thinking  Problem solving The unit ended with an all-encompassing, hands-on activity. To show mastery of learning, I

asked my students to create a board game based on three seemingly simple rules:

1. Game needs to contain geography, science and math questions related to phosphate.

2. Math questions must include all the math studied this year.

3. Include forward as well as backward motion.

To accomplish this, the kids were given a rubric that the teacher would grade them by. The finished products were many colorful, thoughtful, and fun games. We, as a team, really enjoyed doing this unit and feel our students learned a lot over the course of a short time. The excitement and energy surrounding these plans was reflected in the eyes, smiles and ultimately the grades of our students.

Sincerely, Donna L. Ellis

–  –  –

Although phosphate was discovered in Florida in 1881, mining did not actually begin until 1888, when the first shipment of Peace River pebble rock was shipped from the area of Arcadia. The following year, hard-rock phosphate was discovered in Marion County, and people rushed to buy up land containing Florida’s “gray gold.” What makes phosphate so valuable? The answer is that it is essential to life. It cannot be produced in a laboratory; it is mined from deposits formed by ancient seas and then processed into the soluble form that plants and animals need. Humans get their dietary phosphate needs from the plants and animals they consume.

Current mining relies on an electric-powered dragline. This giant machine serves as an excellent model for teaching angles. The boom (arm) of the dragline is constructed in a series of triangles.

The dragline can rotate a full 360° and there are a number of obtuse and acute examples in the structure of the dragline itself.

Phosphorus, in the form of phosphate, is an essential nutrient used to fertilize crops around the world. It is mined as insoluble phosphate rock and is then processed into soluble phosphoric acid. In Florida, ammoniated phosphate fertilizer is the primary product manufactured.

Ammonia provides nitrogen and is added in varying amounts to create different types of fertilizer. Florida provides about 75% of the nation’s phosphate needs and about 25% of the world’s and is thus a major industry.

The phosphate industry provides many learning opportunities for students. As they learn about the industry, its processes, and its finished goods, they also learn to make circle and bar graphs and practice converting whole numbers to percentages.

Phosphate: A Florida Resource Mined for Math uses 1998 statistics about the industry’s finished goods, water usage, employment, transportation costs, and other topics woven into middle school math, language arts and social studies lesson plans. Its activities meet the different range of learning styles of each student in the classroom.

Donna Ellis took the information she learned about phosphate, the phosphate industry and Polk County from FIPR and used it to enhance the math curriculum she was already teaching. All of the activities, including FCAT practice, relate to the students’ new knowledge about the industry around them. In central and northern Florida where phosphate is mined, the industry personally impacts students’ and teachers’ lives and field trips to the mines are possible. If you live in another district, please consider showing your students the virtual field trips available on our website at http://www.fipr.state.fl.us/Virtual_Tours/virtual_tour.htm.





This unit will challenge any math teacher to take his/her students’ interactions with content to a higher level of application of skill than the State of Florida expects them to master.

–  –  –

Language Arts Benchmarks LA.6.4.2.1 The student will write in a variety of informational/expository forms (e.g., summaries, procedures, instructions, experiments, rubrics, how-to manuals, assembly instructions) LA.7.1.6.3 The students will use context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.

LA.7.1.6.8 The student will identify unfamiliar word/phrase relationships and their meanings.

LA.7.1.7.3 The student will determine main idea or essential message in grade level or higher texts through inferring, paraphrasing, summarizing or identifying relevant details.

LA.7.1.7.8 The student will use strategies to repair comprehension of grade appropriate text when self-monitoring indicates confusion, including but not limited to rereading, checking context clues, predicting, note-making, summarizing, using graphing and semantic organizers, questioning and clarifying by checking other sources.

LA.7.2.2.2 The student will use information from the text to state main idea and/or provide relevant details.

LA.7.4.2.1 The student will write in a variety of informational/expository forms (e.g., summaries, procedures, instructions, experiments, rubrics, how-to manuals, assembly instructions) LA.8.4.2.1 The student will write in a variety of informational/expository forms (e.g., summaries, procedures, instructions, experiments, rubrics, how-to manuals, assembly instructions) Math Benchmarks MA.5.A.2.3 Make reasonable estimates for fraction and decimal sums and differences, and use techniques for rounding.

MA.5.S.7.1 Construct and analyze line graphs and double bar graphs.

MA.6.A.5.1 Use equivalent forms of fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems.

–  –  –

MA.6.A.5.3 Estimate the results of computations with fractions, decimals, and percents and judge the reasonableness of the results.

MA.6.G.4.2 Find the perimeters and areas of composite two-dimensional figures, including non-rectangular figures (such as semi-circles) using various strategies.

MA.6.S.6.1 Determine the measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and variability (range) for a given set of data.

MA.7.A.3.2 Add, subtract, multiply, and divide integers, fractions, and terminating decimals and perform exponential operations with rational bases and whole number exponents including solving problems in everyday contexts.

MA.7.A.3.3 Formulate and use different strategies to solve one-step and two-step linear equations with rational coefficients.

MA.7.G.4.1 Determine how changes in dimensions affect the perimeter, area and volume of common geometric figures, and apply these relationships to solve problems.

MA.7.S.6.2 Construct and analyze histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, and circle graphs.

MA.8.G.2.2 Classify and determine the measure of angles, including angles created when parallel lines are cut by transversals.

MA.8.G.2.3 Demonstrate that the sum of the angles in a triangle is 180 degrees and apply this fact to find unknown measure of angles and the sum of angles in polygons.

MA.8.G.2.4 Validate and apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances in real world situations or between points in the coordinate plane.

Social Studies Benchmarks SS.7.E.2.5 Explain how economic institutions impact the national economy.

SS.7.G.3.1 Use maps to describe the location and abundance of natural resources in North America.

SS.7.G.5.1 Use choropleth or other map to geographically represent about issues of conservation or ecology in the local community.

–  –  –

Science Benchmarks SC.6.N.1.1 Define a problem from the sixth grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions SC.6.N.1.4 Discuss, compare, and negotiate methods used, results obtained, and explanations among groups of students conducting the same investigation.

SC.6.N.3.4 Identify the role of models in the context of the sixth grade science benchmarks.

SC.7.N.1.1 Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

SC.7.N.1.6 Explain that empirical evidence is the cumulative body of observations of a natural phenomenon on which scientific explanations are based.

SC.8.N.1.1 Define a problem from the eighth grade curriculum using appropriate reference materials to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigations of various types, such as systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

SC.8.N.1.6 Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses, predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.

–  –  –

Lesson Plan 1

1. Read the 1998 Florida Phosphate Fact Sheet.

2. Use the Fact Sheet to answer questions.

3. Work in cooperative groups to solve math problems.

4. Complete a crossword puzzle with the answers to the questions.

5. Discuss the positives and negatives of phosphate mining in Florida.

Lesson Plan 2

1. Recognize angles on the dragline.

2. Draw angles using a protractor

3. Draw angles using an angle ruler.

4. Measure angles using a protractor.

5. Measure angles using an angle ruler.

Lesson Plan 3

1. Read the handout Florida Phosphate Industry Water Use, 1991-1998.

2. Make a graph of the water usage of the phosphate industry per day from 1991-1998 from a published table.

3. Make predictions about the phosphate industries water usage from 1999-2002 based on data given from the previous years.

4. Compare validity of water usage predictions to actual data collected from 1999-2002.

Lesson Plan 4

1. Know the main finished products of the phosphate industry.

2. State the purpose of a circle graph in their own words.

3. Convert given data into percentages.

4. Show their work in making conversions.

5. Correctly use a percentage protractor.

6. Create a circle graph to represent finished products of the phosphate industry.

Lesson Plan 5

1. Understand the purpose of grids and scale.

2. Understand the relationship between square miles and acres.

3. Create a grid to represent mined land in Polk County, Florida.

4. Calculate the number of square miles of land mined for phosphate in Polk County.

5. Convert this figure to acreage and determine what percentage of total Polk County acreage this represents.

6. Compare mining land use with other land uses in the county, such as agriculture and residential.

7. Write an analysis of land use in Polk County based on the grid they created. How do various types of land use affect the environment?

–  –  –

Lesson Plan 6

1. Read the handout Florida Phosphate Mining: The Real Scoop.

2. Participate in a discussion concerning draglines and mining.

3. Work cooperatively within a group to solve word problems.

4. Work cooperatively within a group to write the equations for word problems.

Lesson Plan 7

1. Work cooperatively with their group to create and design a game using phosphate mining facts.

2. Work cooperatively with their group to create and design a game using math skills.

3. Each group will play another groups game and score the game by using a rubric.

–  –  –

Lesson 1: Phosphate Fact Puzzle KWL Chart

1998 Florida Phosphate Fact Sheet

1998 Phosphate Fact Puzzle

1998 Phosphate Fact Puzzle Answer Key

Lesson 2: Classifying and Naming Angles Measure and Draw Angles Practice

Measure and Draw Angles Practice Answer Key

What's Your Angle?

What's Your Angle? Answer Key

Comparing Angles

Comparing Angles Answer Key

Lesson 3: Analyze Data to Display as a Bar Graph Florida Phosphate Industry Water Use, 1991-1998 table

Phosphate Mining Water Usage Bar Graph

Polk County Water Use Graphs

Lesson 4: Analyze Data to Display as a Circle Graph 1998 Phosphate Industry Finished Products

Phosphate Industry Major Finished Products Circle Graph

Phosphate Industry Major Finished Products Circle Graph Answer Key

Lesson 5: Grid Model Phosphate Problem Create a Grid of Polk County

Calculate Square Miles of Mined Land and Convert to Acres Worksheet

Calculate Square Miles of Mined Land and Convert to Acres Answer Key................53 Lesson 6: Solving Word Problems Florida Phosphate Mining: The Real Scoop

Dragline Word Problems

Dragline Word Problems Answer Key

Lesson 7: Phosphate Math Game Create and Design a Board Game

Rubric for Games

Game Piece Templates

–  –  –

Angle: Two rays or two line segments extending from a common end point called a vertex. Angles are measured in degrees, radians, or gradients.

Animal feed phosphates: Animal feed phosphates consist mainly of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and dicalcium phosphate (DCP). These substances are used as raw material for manufacturing of animal feed for cattle, pigs, poultry, etc.

Bar graph: A graph that uses either vertical or horizontal bars to display countable data.

Beneficiation: Separating a wanted material from other material contained in a mixture. In the case of phosphate, where the mixture is called “matrix,” this means separating clay and sand from the phosphate rock.

Center line: A line bisecting something and dividing it into two equal parts.

Circle graph: A data display that divides a circle into regions representing a portion of the total set of data. The circle represents the whole set of data.

Complementary angles: Two angles, the sum of which is exactly 90°.



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