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• the Minister must report annually to the parliament on community consultation regarding the Planning Strategy [s.22(6)(c)], involving government more in development policy • three categories of development for public notification and consultation purposes are specified according to the development plan for an area (s.38).

Category 1 (complying) development requires no public consultation; category 2 development applications require that notice of the proposal be given to owners of adjacent land and other relevant persons; category 3 development applications, for non-complying development, require that notice of the proposal be given to owners of all properties affected and to the public generally. Third parties may make representations to ACC on category 2 and category 3 development applications • third parties who make representations to ACC in relation to a category 3 development application may lodge an appeal against a decision with the Environment, Resources and Development Court • major developments may be recommended by the Minister for consideration by


a special panel (s.46), by-passing planning procedures under the Development Act such as local government scrutiny. Under this provision, controversial developments in the parklands have been approved, as well as the metropolitan area’s first foreshore development, a high-rise apartment building at Glenelg. The overwhelming majority of developments recommended by the Minister under s.46 have been approved3 • the establishment of a new court under the Environment, Resources and Development Court Act (1993) to replace planning appeals tribunals with increased powers. Third parties who have been given notice of a proposal may appeal local government development decisions to this court.

The planning system failed to protect Adelaide’s historic precincts during the 1980s and early 1990s and would continue to do so, although new developments occured at a slower pace in the 1990s because the building boom had ended.

The SA Heritage Act (1978) was replaced by the Heritage Act (1993) [now the Heritage Places Act (1993)] and affected only state heritage places. A major change was the establishment of a State Heritage Authority (now Heritage Council) (s.4) to replace the toothless SAHC. The Authority is more than an advisory body. Its role is to administer the State Heritage Register, that is, to enter places on or remove places from the register, a role formerly exercised by the Minister under the 1978 Act (the term ‘item’ in the 1978 Act was replaced with ‘place’). This government intended that this change would remove politics from heritage listing. However, ministers have on occasion exercised their right under the Act to declare a provisional entry in the Register to be contrary to the public interest (s.18), that is, the minister may override a heritage decision of the Heritage Council.

Developers gained certainty through the introduction of the certificate of exclusion (s.22), which would guarantee a property owner that his or her property would not be entered in the State Register within five years of the date of the certificate. The 1993 Act also provided for heritage agreements (s.32) between the Minister and owners of land to conserve the property. Fines for intentional damage of a registered place were substantially increased. These amendments had been proposed mainly by the State Heritage Branch, rather than the State Planning Review, after the SHB’s See list of 10 development applications attached to agenda for Major Development Panel Public Forum 2000. Of applications assessed by the panel for environmental, social, and economic impacts, 98 per cent were approved before 2000. Cf. http://www.planning.sa.gov.

au/ go/development-applications/major-development-projects/previous-projects-assessed, accessed 13 February 2006.

Heritage Politics in Adelaide 15 years experience of administering the SA Heritage Act (1978). The new Acts were proclaimed in January 1994.

This book has shown that after 1980, Adelaide’s built heritage was lost on a scale previously unknown in SA, ironically at a time when international, national and state legislation had been enacted to protect the built heritage. The building boom that caused the heritage devastation was driven by 1980s ‘corporate cowboys’, fuelled by the deregulation of monetary policy and encouraged by state and local governments to create employment, increase revenue and modernise cities. In these circumstances, local governments were encouraged to disregard planning and heritage principles. The outcome was ruinous for the Bannon government, banks and financiers, development companies and their contractors. Sykes reports that ‘total write-offs and provisions by banks and financiers amounted to $28 billion’ across Australia.4 It was also ruinous for the character of many of Adelaide’s historic precincts. A follow-up to Michael Burdon’s pictorial book Lost Adelaide, published in 1983, would show the devastation of historic precincts during this period.

This study may not have emphasised the progress in heritage listing at the same time. In 1982, the Register of State Heritage Items consisted of 446 items and increased to 1831 items in 1993, when Labor lost government. While the Bannon government cut the budget of the State Heritage Branch drastically by the mid-1980s, the SAHC became less ‘elitist’ in its choice of recommendations for entry on the register. From 1980 through 1990, the average number of entries on the register was about 116 per year. The exception was 1986, when the number of listed items increased from 842 to 1,190 to satisfy the Minister’s direction that the Adelaide buildings on the Register of State Heritage Items match those on the new City of Adelaide Register, accounting for an unusually large increase of 348 items in that year. In the final two years of the Bannon government, only 40 items were entered on the state register.5 In 1989, the Minister approved historic (conservation) zones for suburban council districts, to be managed by the councils. ACC similarly changed its heritage values from 5 per cent of the building stock, entered on its first register, based largely on architectural merit, to a small increase of 104 items in 1993 and a further 805 items on its local heritage register listed in the Adelaide Development Plan 1996–2001. Despite the increases, state funding for heritage Trevor Sykes, The Bold Riders (St Leonards: Allen & Unwin, 1994), p.1.

SA Department of Environment and Land Management, State of the Environment Report for South Australia, 1993 (Adelaide: Community Education and Policy Education Group, 1993), pp.263–65.


conservation dropped dramatically from 1988, but ACC maintained its heritage conservation fund throughout the period.

The Bannon government was no more cavalier with respect to heritage than any other state government. The financial and heritage losses occurred in all Australian states at the same time and for the same reasons. Premiers in Victoria, WA and SA were brought down because of property dealings. Queensland was notorious for the midnight demolitions of the Belle Vue Hotel and Cloudland Ballroom in Brisbane in 1982, part of the heritage-annihilation spree of the Bjelke-Peterson era in that state. Historic buildings in the major cities of New Zealand were demolished during a building boom at the same time, despite public protests by members of the Historic Properties Trust.6 Many of these events have been recorded, but much research remains to be undertaken on the heritage and heritage politics of suburban districts, country areas, river and coastal areas and recent migrant heritage. The latter would include not just cultural artefacts but the streetscapes, shops, places of worship, hostels and detention centres with which migrants and refugees have been associated.

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The Rt. Hon. The Lord Mayor of Adelaide (JVS Bowen, Esq.), Chair1 Alderman John Chappel (Architect)2 Roger Cook (Colliers International, President, Building Owners and Managers Association) Professor John Cooper (School of Architecture and Building, SA Institute of Technology) Geoffrey Dutton, AO (Historian and Editor, Sun Books Pty. Ltd.)3 Ray Harrison (Head, South Australian Heritage Unit)4 Jack McConnell (Architect) Professor David Saunders (Faculty of Architecture, University of Adelaide) Dr Alan Spry (Senior Consultant, Australian Mineral Development Laboratories) Dr John Tregenza (Curator, Historical Collections, Art Gallery of South Australia) Gavin Walkley, C.B.E. (Architect and Chairman, Architects Board of S.A.) Alderman John Watson (Deputy Lord Mayor) Dr Derek Whitelock (Assistant Director, Continuing Education, University of Adelaide) Replaced by Lord Mayor Dr AJ Watson in 1982 Replaced by Alderman William Manos, 1982 Replaced by Dr Norman E. Etherington, 1982 Replaced by Barry Rowney, December 1981

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Government sources

Adelaide City Archives files:

RS19 Warner Theatre 2997/0044 and 10424 State Bank Centre 7601 Lord Mayor’s Heritage Advisory Committee (LOMHAC) A4688 Register of City of Adelaide Heritage Items A1487, A13946, D3741 and D3554 Townscape Initiative and City-State Forum A14150 and D3774 City-State Forum BF582 City of Adelaide Plan Review D0019-15/01 City of Adelaide Heritage Advisory Committee (COAHAC) D0228-05 and D3462 St Paul’s Church D0352-10 House of Chow building D0740-05, D0740-20, D0740-30 and D31/0402 Kingsmead D0740-25 Belmont House D4231 Instructions out of Council D3528 REMM-Myer Project D3617 Review of City of Adelaide Heritage Register D5800 City of Adelaide Heritage Register Survey Australian Bureau of Statistics Catalogues 8708.4 – 8731.0, Building Activity in Adelaide, 1983–93.

Australian Heritage Commission, Heritage Economics. Canberra: conference proceedings, 2001.

City of Adelaide Planning Commission Annual Reports, 1978–86.

City of Adelaide Planning Commission Files: 46/81, Mail Exchange, Grenfell St, 49/81 State Bank Centre, 6/81 and 6/84 ASER Project, 30/82 and 56/82 Aurora Hotel and Citi-Com Project, 64/82 House of Chow building, 17/86 and 46/86 East End Markets, 87/86 203–207 North Terrace, 60/87 REMM-Myer Project City of Adelaide, State of the Environment Position Paper, Edition 1, November 1994.


Clarke, George, The City of Adelaide Plan 1974. Adelaide: Urban Systems Corp P/L, 1974.

City of Adelaide Plans, five-yearly, 1976–96.

Commonwealth Department of Environment, Committee of Review, Commonwealth Owned Heritage Properties, A Presence for the Past. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1996.

Commonwealth of Australia, Productivity Commission Draft Report, Conservation of Australia’s Historic Heritage Places, Dec. 2005.

Conlon, David, ‘Heritage Project Funding’, paper of Construction Industry Conference, 12 May 1992, by Manager, State Heritage Branch.

Corporation of the City of Adelaide Annual Reports.

Corporation of the City of Adelaide, The Civic Record 1936–76. Adelaide: Wakefield Press. 1986.

Corporation of the City of Adelaide, ‘The Character of the City of Adelaide’, Department of Planning and Development, March 1989.

Donovan, Peter, Susan Marsden and Paul Stark, City of Adelaide Heritage Study.

Adelaide: City of Adelaide Department of City Planning, 1982.

East End Redevelopment Steering Committee, The East End, a Report on the Redevelopment of the Adelaide Fruit and Produce Exchange Site, Final Report.

August 1992.

Heritage Branch and Heritage Council websites: www.environment.sa.gov.au/heritage accessed 26 July 2001; www.environment.act.gov.au/heritage/heritagecouncil accessed 9 May 2005; www.heritage.nsw.gov.au accessed 9 May 2005; www.

nt.gov.au/nreta/heritage accessed 9 May 2005; www.epa.qld.gov.au/cultural_ heritage accessed 9 May 2005; www.heritage.tas.gov.au accessed 9 May 2005;

www.heritage.vic.gov.au accessed 9 May 2005; www.heritage.wa.gov.au accessed 9 May 2005.

Heritage Unit, SA Department for the Environment, ‘A Guide to the South Australian Heritage Act’. July 1979.

Marsden, Susan, Historical Guidelines, Heritage Branch, SA Department for the Environment, 1980.

Mant, John, and Social and Ecological Assessment Pty Ltd, Legal and Economic Aspects of Heritage Conservation in the City of Adelaide, Draft Heritage Study, Stage II. Corporation of the City of Adelaide, 1982.

McDougall, Kate and Elizabeth Vines, ‘The East End Buildings Redevelopment, Heritage Impact Statement’, study commissioned by the State Heritage Branch, dated November 1990.

Heritage Politics in Adelaide Minutes of meetings of the City of Adelaide Planning Commission, 1983–93.

Minutes of meetings of the Adelaide City Council and committees, 1983–93.

RIPAA (ACT Division), ‘Where Do Governments Get Their Advice?’ Proceedings of Seminar September 1992, in Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration, 75, December 1993.

Jacobs, Sam R., AO, QC, Royal Commission into the State Bank of South Australia, First Report November 1992. Second Report November 1993. Final Report

1993. Netley: State Print, 1993.

SA Appeals Tribunal Decisions Bulletin, vol. I, 1984–86; vol. II, 1987–90.

SA Department of Environment and Land Management, State of the Environment Report for South Australia, 1993.

_____, Annual Reports, 1985–92.

_____, Organisation Review of the Heritage Conservation Branch, March 1984.

SA Department of Planning website http://www.planning.sa.gov.au/ go/ development-applications/major-development-projects/previous-projectsassessed accessed 13 February 2006.

SA Parliamentary Debates, 1983–93.

Scripps, Lindy, and Anne McConnell, ‘Heritage Conservation’, Companion to Tasmanian History, www.utas.edu.au/library/companion_to_tasmanian_ history/H/Heritage%20Conservation.htm.

South Australian Financing Authority, Annual Report 1989–1990. Adelaide, 1990.

South Australian Planning Commission, Report on the Administration of the Planning Act 1982. Adelaide: Government Printing Office, 1982.

State Heritage Authority, First Annual Report, 30 June 1996.

State Heritage Branch, minutes of meetings of South Australian Heritage Committee, 1982–93, and files on specific buildings.

Legal Opinion Borthwick v City of Adelaide, (1985) 18 APA 435.

South Australian Statutes City of Adelaide (Development Control) Act 1976 Development Act 1993 South Australian Heritage Act 1993 Local Government Act 1934 South Australian Planning Act 1982

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