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Heritage Politics

in Adelaide

For David and for all the other members of Aurora Heritage Action, Inc.

Explorations and Encounters FRENCH in Heritage Politics in Adelaide EditEd by JEaN FoRNasiERo aNd ColEttE MRowa-HopkiNs Sharon Mosler selected Essays from the inaugural Conference of the Federation of associations of teachers of French in australia Published in Adelaide by University of Adelaide Press Barr Smith Library The University of Adelaide South Australia press@adelaide.edu.au www.adelaide.edu.au/press The University of Adelaide Press publishes externally refereed scholarly books by staff of the University of Adelaide. It aims to maximise the accessibility to its best research by publishing works through the internet as free downloads and as high quality printed volumes on demand.

Electronic Index: this book is available from the website as a down-loadable PDF with fully searchable text. Please use the electronic version to complement the index.

© 2011 Sharon Mosler This book is copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission. Address all inquiries to the Director at the above address.

University of Adelaide Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Mosler, Sharon Ann.

Heritage politics in Adelaide / Sharon Mosler.

p. cm.

Originated as the author’s Thesis (Ph.D.) – University of Adelaide, School of History and Politics, Discipline of History, 2007 Includes bibliographical references ISBN 978-0-9870730-4-4 (paperback) ISBN 978-0-9870730-3-7 (PDF)

1. Bannon, John, 1943-. 2. City planning -- South Australia -- Adelaide. 3. Historic buildings – Conservation and restoration – South Australia – Government policy. 4. Cultural property, Protection of – South Australia. 5. Adelaide (S. Aust.) – Buildings, structures, etc. – Conservation and restoration.

307.12/16/0994231--dc23 __________________________________________________________________________________

Book design by Midland Typesetters Cover design by Emma Spoehr. Photograph supplied by the author.

Paperback printed by Griffin Press, South Australia Contents List of Illustrations

–  –  –

AC Archives Adelaide City Archives ACC Adelaide City Council AFPE Adelaide Fruit and Produce Exchange (East End Market) AHA Aurora Heritage Action, Inc.

ASER Adelaide Station and Environs Redevelopment project ATO Australian Taxation Office BFC Beneficial Finance Corporation Ltd BLF Builders Labourers Federation BOMA Building Owners and Managers Association CAPAT City of Adelaide Planning Appeals Tribunal CAPC City of Adelaide Planning Commission CBD Central Business District CCSA Conservation Council of South Australia CMEU Construction, Mining and Energy Union COAHAC City of Adelaide Heritage Advisory Committee, 1991-92 DAC Development Assessment Committee DEP Department of Environment and Planning DFC Desired future character – of precincts in the City of Adelaide Plan DMS Consultants Peter Donovan, Susan Marsden and Paul Stark LOHMAC Lord Mayor’s Heritage Advisory Committee 1982-83 MATS Metropolitan Adelaide Transportation System NEAR North East Adelaide Redevelopment Pty. Ltd.

NGO Non-government organisation PAR Plan Amendment Report amending a Development Plan of the Development Act 1993

vii Heritage Politics in Adelaide

Plan City of Adelaide Plan PEC Planning and Environment Committee of the Adelaide City Council 1986 – 1993 (formerly the Planning Approvals Committee) RAIA Royal Australian Institute of Architecture SA Chapter REMM Real Estate Marketing & Management SAFA South Australian Financing Authority SAHC South Australian Heritage Committee SAPC South Australian Planning Commission SASFIT South Australian Superannuation Fund Investment Trust SBSA State Bank of South Australia SGIC State Government Insurance Commission SHB State Heritage Branch SPU Special Projects Unit of the Department of the Premier and Cabinet TAGs Townscape Advisory Groups TFA Transferable Floor Area

viii Chronology

1963 Construction began on 7-storey Hotel Australia, Brougham Place, North Adelaide 1968 Metropolitan Adelaide Transport System (MATS) Plan approved;

abandoned 1971 1969 Successful campaign to save Carclew mansion in North Adelaide 1970 Formation of the North Adelaide Society 1971 Successful campaign to save ANZ Bank [Edmund Wright House] in King William Street Demolition of the South Australian Hotel, North Terrace Builders Laborers Federation commenced green bans in New South Wales 1972 UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1973 Unsuccessful campaign to save Education Building in Flinders Street, Adelaide 1974 Australian Heritage Commission Act Victorian Historic Buildings Act (1974) Formation of the Adelaide Residents’ Association Publication of George Clarke’s first City of Adelaide Plan, the ‘Red Book’ 1976 City of Adelaide (Development Control) Act (1976) 1977 City of Adelaide Planning Commission constituted First City of Adelaide Plan gazetted as a schedule to the City of Adelaide (Development Control) Act (1976) New South Wales Heritage Act (1977) 1978 South Australian Heritage Act (1978); establishment of State Heritage Committee

ix Heritage Politics in Adelaide

1979 Charter for the Conservation of Places of Cultural Significance (Burra Charter) adopted by ICOMOS 1979–82 First listings on Register of State Heritage Items 1980 Successful campaign to stop development in Dimora grounds, East Terrace, Adelaide 1981 Unsuccessful campaign to save the Majestic Theatre and Hotel in King William Street 1982 First Bannon government elected in November with promise of new ASER project City of Adelaide Heritage Study completed Lord Mayor’s Heritage Advisory Committee (LOMHAC) commenced consideration of buildings for entry on the City of Adelaide Heritage Register 1983 Formation of the South Australian Financing Authority (SAFA) and Special Projects Unit (SPU) Campaign to save Kingsmead and Belmont, North Adelaide; later listed in Register of State Heritage Items ASER Bill introduced in Parliament Unsuccessful campaign to save Aurora Hotel, Adelaide; formation of Aurora Heritage Action, Inc.

Float of the Australian dollar by Hawke government 1984 Further deregulation of the financial system; influx of foreign banks and overseas capital State Bank of South Australia Act (1983) proclaimed; Tim Marcus Clark appointed managing director of SBSA ASER Act proclaimed; designs for ASER project hotel and office tower released Amendments to Local Government Act (1934) to extend franchise to all ratepayers Successful campaign to save heritage-listed Commonwealth Bank building in Curry St.

1985 State Bank Centre approved, including demolition of heritage-listed Commonwealth Bank chamber Unsuccessful campaign to save historic buildings at Town Acre 86, Adelaide Heritage Unit renamed State Heritage Branch and restructured First Working Women’s Creche redevelopment approved

x Chronology

City of Adelaide Planning Appeals Tribunal decision against demolition of Kingsmead 1986 Severe staff cutbacks in State Heritage Branch.

1987 City of Adelaide Plan 1981-86 gazetted with Register of City of Adelaide Heritage Items REMM-Myer proposal extended to heritage-listed buildings in North Terrace First of five proposals to redevelop the East End Market site by NEAR abandoned Development of Working Women’s Creche site approved, with demolition of the creche Queensland Heritage Act (1987) 1988 Adelaide City Council’s heritage incentive scheme approved REMM-Myer project approved with financing from the State Bank of SA Successful campaign to save the Westpac Bank building, North Terrace, Adelaide Proposal to develop East End Market site by East End Market Company Ltd approved but abandoned 1989 Historic (Conservation) Zones approved for local government districts First (non-statutory) public exhibition of a streetscape protection concept for Adelaide Second (non-statutory) public exhibition of streetscape concept Nov 1989 – Jan 1990 Successful campaign to save St Paul’s Church in Pulteney St, Adelaide.

1990 Review of Register of City of Adelaide Heritage Items; COAHAC established Interim listing of St Paul’s Church on Register of State Heritage Items Beneficial Finance and Ayers Finniss Ltd proposal for East End Market approved Heritage of Western Australia Act (1990) 1991 Pro-heritage faction gains a majority of seats in Adelaide City Council ‘House of Chow’ building demolished Somerset Hotel demolished Statutory exhibition of townscape initiative December 1991 – February 1992 Proposal to redevelop Gawler Chambers; building placed on State interim register State Planning Review begun

xi Heritage Politics in Adelaide

1992 Townscape Advisory Groups (TAGs) established to hear objections to townscape listing Townscape I list and principles forwarded to City of Adelaide Planning Commission Adelaide City Council approved Townscape II list resulting in a strong backlash Minister for Local Government established a city/State forum to review the townscape initiative; forum recommended a local heritage register in lieu of townscape protection Local heritage criteria approved by Adelaide City Council in December State Government purchased East End Market site after collapse of Beneficial Finance John Bannon resigned as Premier in September 1993 Local Heritage Review Committee established by Minister to assess objections to local heritage listing 1991–96 City of Adelaide Plan proclaimed with additions to the Register of City of Adelaide Heritage Items 1994 SA Development Act (1993) and Heritage Act (1993) proclaimed Local Heritage Review Committee final report submitted; findings rejected by Adelaide City Council Adelaide’s first Development Plan with its local heritage register proclaimed under the SA Development Act (1993) First stage of southern portion of East End Market development approved 1995 Tasmanian Historic Cultural Heritage Act (1995) Approval of high-rise residential development at northern East End Market site

xii Preface

This study, which originated as a PhD thesis, examines heritage issues and conflicts in Adelaide from enactment of the first South Australian Heritage Act in 1978 to its successor in 1993, and also extends certain issues from that period into the twentyfirst century. State legislation introduced by the Labor government of Premier Mike Rann (2002 – present) has affected the built environment significantly since I drafted this book. The Rann government has given the built heritage a low priority in its strategic plan compared to population growth, while Adelaide City Council (ACC) has become more balanced in the past decade, although the council too has focussed on increasing Adelaide’s population. The result has been more high-rise buildings at the expense of heritage conservation and historic precincts.

The building boom of the 1980s and early 1990s was characterised mainly by speculation in office development, as described in this book. From the late 1990s, residential development, particularly high-rise apartments and hotels, has been another major growth sector of the building industry in Adelaide, largely the result of government policies, while office development has continued. Both the state and city governments planned for residential growth aimed at halting urban sprawl, with its demands on infrastructure development, by creating higher density living in the metropolitan areas. The 2004 state Government Strategic Plan, introduced before the impacts of the global financial crisis were felt, projected an unrealistic state population growth to 2 million by 2010. ACC complemented the state’s projections in its Residential Growth Plan 2004-2010 by setting a target of nearly 35,000 overnight occupiers by 2010 (including tourists and other temporary residents).

In 1981, at the beginning of this study, the city’s residents numbered 12,656.

By 2010, permanent residents had risen to nearly 16,000, and the overnight target of 35,000 was met.

xiii Heritage Politics in Adelaide

ACC has encouraged population growth by creating partnerships with developers for residential projects on council land, such as the Halifax St depot site, the former Balfour’s bakery site near Light Square, acquired by ACC, and the Franklin Street bus station site. It has also encouraged student housing projects by the Universities of Adelaide and South Australia. Office buildings are being converted to residential use, and many new high-rise buildings contain a mix of retail, office and residential floors, particularly around Hindmarsh Square. Federal government funding for affordable housing in 2009 brought additional highrise residential development, a 15-storey apartment building in 102 Waymouth St. The state government also funded a building of 60 units for homeless and low-income people at Light Square in 2007 through a Partnership for City Living agreement with ACC.

After a prolonged consultation period, an historic (conservation) zone was approved for North Adelaide in 2008. As a first step toward a similar zone for Adelaide’s ‘square mile’, a heritage study was undertaken of the Hutt Street and residential zone of the southeast sector. ACC recommended that 84 buildings in that sector be listed in the local heritage register. Planning Minister Paul Holloway refused to list 20 of the buildings and waited an inordinately long time before acting on the remaining buildings. When these heritage listings are finalised, ACC may proceed with the principles of an historic (conservation) zone for Adelaide’s square mile. Such a zone is intended to protect the character of historic streets and precincts within the city.

The Rann government has intervened increasingly in property development matters through two major pieces of legislation. In 2006, the government amended the Development Act to require a majority of independent members on council development assessment panels that accept or reject new building proposals. The outcome in Adelaide has been the approval of more proposals that did not conform to principles of the Adelaide Development Plan. That is, decision-makers ignored height limits, density and other restrictions on development.

In 2008 the government amended the Development Act to provide that all building proposals valued at $10 million or more be assessed by the state’s Development Assessment Commission (DAC). While councils could first consider these development proposals and make recommendations to DAC, the DAC has largely disregarded councils’ views. The legislation occasionally brought the state government into conflict with local governments, particularly when DAC approved residential developments with height limits and designs that contrasted sharply with surrounding streetscapes. This has occurred in transport corridors of the inner

xiv Preface

suburbs of Walkerville and Prospect, as well as in many Adelaide streets, the most notorious of which is at the former Le Cornu site in O’Connell Street, North Adelaide.

In 2010 the Rann government introduced ‘The 30 Year Plan for Greater Adelaide’, emphasising population growth. In future, councils will be required to take into account the principles of this plan with regard to property developments in their districts. The plan is likely to have the same impacts on council districts as the state legislation described above, that is, more high-density residential developments.

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