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«jaltcalljournal ISSn 1832-4215 Vol. 8, no.1 Pages 17–32 ©2012 jAlt cAll SIg The growing body of literature on Computer CALL Assisted Language Learning ...»

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Basically, teachers have not rightly understood the potential effectiveness of CALL in education. As it was discussed above, most technology immigrants fear the risk of losing face or they simply consider computer as a luxurious device that is only appropriate for the kind of engineering-type technical use. As some of the teachers discussed in the third section of the questionnaire, they seem to have a clear misconception about CALL application as they equated computer use in class as being as computer literate as a technician. However, what these teachers claim is not off the wall. The mere knowledge and experience of computers do not equip teachers with the required skills to fully operate computers. As Somekh and Davis (1997) remarked the effective adoption of computers in an educational context takes a good amount of time. Sandholtz (2001) argued that with an optimistic estimate, at least 28 a year or so should be set aside on part of institutions and educational systems to train Maftoon & Shahini: CALL normalization their teachers by professional technicians and through collaborative work. As a key step to normalization, teachers should become more CALL friendly. To this end some measures

should be taken:

First, institutional principals should attempt to encourage teachers to use CALL inside their classrooms (Veen, 1993) and also to provide them with IT courses in case it seems necessary. By meticulous programming, principals can raise funds in order to equip their institutions with CALL laboratories and essential hardware and software. This, in part, will give confidence to teachers to start using the facilities being provided with much trouble and inconvenience. However, any deficit in budgeting of the courses or implementational affairs should it be out of the affordance of the institution should be reflected to the governmental bodies for further action. Teachers should feel that their voice is heard and acted upon. This will make the process of teachers’ CALL adoption way easier and faster.

Normalization is a state of educational change (Fullan, 2005) and adoption is the first step in the three-staged process of change implementation (Fullan, 1991). The other two are implementation and institutionalization. However, theories of educational change do not have equal impact on each of the three stages of innovation and each stage in influenced by some known and unknown factors. Teachers own attitudes, subjective norms, perceived ease of use and usefulness, administrative support, time, financial budgeting and macro social factors are among the known. Further research is required to unveil the clandestine factors at work in the uptake of CALL by teachers. Following this, barriers to successful CALL adoption would be identified and an awareness of these impediments raised which in turn could provide us with some solutions which can be offered to pre-service teachers in training courses.

Next, teacher training courses play an undeniable role in giving the necessary leadership skills and techniques to pre-service and in-service teachers. It constitutes a great part of any teacher’s challenges and dilemmas that may come up during their teaching career.

Therefore, they should provide them with a suitable model of new pedagogies and technologies, aiming at advancing the borders of learning. Furthermore, these courses should have the duty of having teachers understood how new technologies can be perfectly employed in the economic and cultural status quo of a given context. Therefore, it seems that teachers’ training in this regard is not an easy one and needs to be carried out by the experts of the field. This timely process is a collaborative one, begging for support from principals, administrators and governmental bodies.

Finally, it is of utmost importance to note that unless the necessary technological, ecological administrative resources and infrastructures are not established, all we do is paying lip service to the merits of CALL without practicing what we preach. As Ioannou-Georgiou (2006) pointed out, appropriate hardware and software, easy access to technology, topdown policy to use computers, technology-syllabus integration, teacher technology training, teachers’ CALL implementation training, teachers’ technical and pedagogical support are only among many of the known and on-the-surface factors that are essential to reach normalization. However, what is even more essential is much research and work to be undertaken to investigate other deeply rooted sources of CALL disuse if this new field of education is to survive and grow.

The jalt call Journal 2012: Regular Papers

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Author biodata Parviz Maftoon is associate professor of TEFL at Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran. He received his PhD degree from New York University in 1978 in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). His primary research interests concern EFL writing, second language acquisition, SL/FL language teaching methodology, and language syllabus design. He has published and edited a number of research articles and books. He is currently on the editorial board of some language journals in Iran.

Amin Shahini is a faculty member at the University of Imam Sadiq. He is also a PhD candidate at Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Iran. His interests are CALL,

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