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«Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic) Authors Roberson, E. Wayne (Earl Wayne) Publisher The University of Arizona. Rights Copyright © is ...»

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Item type text; Dissertation-Reproduction (electronic)

Authors Roberson, E. Wayne (Earl Wayne)

Publisher The University of Arizona.

Rights Copyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this

material is made possible by the University Libraries,

University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.

Downloaded 8-Feb-2017 21:37:44 Link to item http://hdl.handle.net/10150/284896 This dissertation has been microfilmed exactly as received 67-16 508 ROBERSON, Earl Wayne, 1938THE PREPARATION OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE


University of Arizona, Ed. D., 1967 Education, theory and practice University Microfilms, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan






by Earl Wayne Roberson A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the


In Partial Fulfillment of the RequTrements For the Degr.ee of


In the Graduate College




I hereby recommend that this dissertation prepared under my direction by Earl Wayne Roberson entitled THE PREPARATION OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE


be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement of the


degree of Sji2 /* Dissertation Director Date After inspection of the dissertation, the following members of the Final Examination Committee concur in its approval and

recommend its acceptance:*

so./ {7 s /,i ye7 A *This approval and acceptance is contingent on the candidate's adequate performance and defense of this dissertation at the final oral examination. The inclusion of this sheet bound into the library copy of the dissertation is evidence of satisfactory performance at the final examination.


This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the UniversityLibrary to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that, accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.


The writer of this dissertation wishes to express his thanks to the members of his committee for their encouragement and invaluable assistance. Special thanks are due to the writer's chairman, Dr. William D, Barnes, for his support and expert guidance in the development of this study; and to Dr. Paul M. Allen, for his inspiring discussions and helpful suggestions.

Special gratitude is due to Elbert Brooks, Charles Grubbs, Samual Polito, and Barbara Riley, who worked so diligently during training sessions and observation periods. Their cooperation and participation in this study was highly valued.

Acknowledgment is especially accorded to the writer's family, his wife, Gail, and his son, Brad. Their patience and understanding during the development and writing of this study furthered the writer's efforts.

–  –  –

This study originated from the needs of a Tucson Public Schools teacher in-service project. The study focused on teacher self-appraisal utilizing some observa­ tional technique for studying the teaching act as documented on video recordings. A survey of the observation systems seemed to indicate the need for some new system of simultaneously coding video recordings of teacher verbal and non-verbal classroom behavior. This study was then initiated to accomplish the following tasks: (1) to survey existing observation systems for the analysis of teacher classroom behavior, (2) to select the most nearly adequate instrument to modify and use in the coding of video-taped recordings of teacher classroom behavior, to use pre­ recorded video-tapes in checking the applicability of the modified instrument, (3) to further modify and adapt the instrument as needed, and (4) to conduct a pilot study to establish the adequacy and reliability of the instrument.

From the following survey of existing instruments, Galloway's system for coding teacher non-verbal classroom behavior was selected to be modified. The modifications included: (l) the addition of categories to include verbal expressions, (2) the inclusion of the objectives dimension and methods dimension of teacher behavior, and (3) the ix X adaptation of the classification system to IBM cards for efficient analysis of the recorded teacher behaviors.

The task of developing and modifying an instrument for the coding of teacher verbal and non-verbal classroom behaviors was organized into three phases. Phase I was directed to the task of surveying the existing instruments and selecting the most adequate for local needs. Phase II included the organizing and synthesizing categories of behavior which the instrument would include. Phase III involved a pilot study in which video recordings of teaching were secured. These were then utilized in testing the new instrument by conducting a pilot study involving six graduate students from the University of Arizona. Instru­ ment modifications and observation procedures were made on the basis of this pilot study.

The completed instrument contained three dimensions of teacher classroom behavior: (l) the objective dimension of behavior included the cognitive and affective categories from Bloom's taxonomies of educational objectives, (2) the methods dimension of behavior contained the open and closed methods of teaching in the classroom according to James MacDonald's concept of gamesmanship in the classroom, and (3) the expressions dimension included locally developed verbal categories as well as Galloway's non-verbal cate­ gories of teacher expressions.

xi The pilot study results revealed that the objec­ tives and methods category agreements ranged from.89 to

1.00. The categories of teacher verbal and non-verbal expressions yielded the lowest coder agreements, ranging from.78 to 1.00. Approximately 85% of the teacher expres­ sions in both categories were classified as routine.

Conclusions of the investigation were that: (1) instruments for the simultaneous coding of teacher verbal and non-verbal classroom behavior were not readily available, (2) teacher clas.sroom behavior can be described in terms of the dimensions of teacher objectives, methods and expressions, and.(3) all three dimensions lend them­ selves to further experimentation, modification, and development.



One of the most active lines of research in educa­ tion at. the moment centers on describing the teaching process within the context of the classroom. It is only during the last decade_ that a concerted study of teacher classroom behavior using systematic observation procedures has been undertaken.

Barr,^" Withall,^ Mitzel and Medley,^ and Hughes^ are some of the pioneers in the field of instrument, development for the systematic'observation of teaching A. S. Barr, Characteristic Differences in the Teaching Performance of Good and Poor Teachers in ScTcTal Studies (Bloomington, 111.: Public School Publishing Company, 1929), p. 48.

John Withall, "The Development of a Technique for the Measurement of Social-Emotional Climate in Classrooms," Journal of Experimental Education, XLV (March, 1949), 93W.

Donald M. Medley and Harold E. Mitzel, Studies of Teacher Behavior: Refinement of Two Techniques for AssessTng Teacher's Classroom"T?ehaviors, Research Series No. 28, City of New York, Division of Teacher Education, Office of Research and Evaluation (New York: Board of Higher Education, 1955).

4Marie Hughes et al., Development of the Means for the Assessment of the T^uaTTty of Teaching Tn Elementary Schools, Cooperative Research Froject NoT 3*53 (.Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1959).

behavior; others are Smith, Ryans, and Flanders. Since their efforts, a host of additional researchers have joined g the task. Most notable among the newcomers ares Bellack, Taba,^ Perkins,"^ Amidon and Hunter,"^' and MacDonald.^ Observational systems developed thus far can be divided roughly into three categories: (1) those dealing with, classroom interaction, where most of the studies can B. 0. Smith £t al., A Study of the Logic of Teaching: A Report on the First"~Phase of a Five-Year Research Project ("Washington, E). C.: U. S. OTflce of Education, 1959).

. G. Ryans, Characteristics of Teachers (Washington, D. C.: American Council on Education, 1962).

^Ned A. Flanders, Interaction Analysis in the Classroom, A Manual for Observers (Minneapolis:"~University of Minnesota Press, I960")"! * ~~ Arno Bellack, The Language of the Classroom, Cooperative Research Project Nb. 2TJ23T Institute of Psychological Research (Columbia: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1965).

g Hilda Taba £t al., Thinking in Elementary School Children, U. S. Office "oF Education Cooperative Research Project No. 1574 (San Francisco: San Francisco State College, 1964).

"^Hugh Perkins, "A Procedure for Assessing the Classroom Behavior of Students and Teachers," American Educational Research Journal, I, No. 4 (November^ 1964), 249-260.

"^Edmund Amidon and Elizabeth Hunter, Improving Teaching (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston" Inc., 1966).

12James B. MacDonald et al., Report of a Study of Openness in Classroom Interactions, National~Tnstitute oT Mental HeaTtK^ Public Health Service Research Grant No.

MH07563-01 (Milwaukee: University of Wisconsin, 1966).

be traced to the work of Withall, (2) those dealing with attempts to measure classroom behavior per se, to describe quantitatively what goes on in the classroom^ this type of observation system centers around the work of Mitzel and Medley,"^ and (3) those dealing with the cognitive aspects of the teaching process which was initiated by Smith and Meux.^~* There is some degree of overlap among the instru­ ments developed within these three categories.

The above mentioned instruments vary in breath of coverage, sources of data, units of measurement, procedures for recording observations, and the dimensions of teaching behavior studied. For the purpose of this study, teacher objectives, methods and expressions were selected as the dimensions of teacher verbal and non-verbal classroom behavior to be categorized. The approach was based on a familiar analytical system of determining the teacher's desired outcomes and the means utilized to achieve the out­ comes. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument which teachers could use in analyzing video­ tape recordings of their classroom behavior.

The idea for this instrument originated from the needs of the Teacher Self-Appraisal Research Project •^Withall, loc. cit.

"^Medley, loc. cit.

15Smith, loc. cit.

operating in the Tucson Public Schools. A search of the related literature revealed that there was no entirelyappropriate instrument suitable for the coding of teacher verbal and non-verbal classroom behavior from video recordings of classroom teaching. Thus, with the support of the Teacher Self-Appraisal research team, the task of developing an instrument was-begun.

Statement of the Problem It was the purpose of this study to modify and adapt an existing instrument for use in the coding of video recordings of verbal and non-verban teacher classroom behavior.

Significance of the Problem In reviewing research dealing with observational procedures and instrument development for the coding of teacher behavior, it was obvious that differences existed in the various systems of describing teacher behavior.

There has been a tendency to accord little emphasis to a logical theory or rationale which would reflect that which is known about society, the teacher, and the teaching process.

The aspects of teaching behavior that have been studied tend to be viewed as if they were independent of the context within which they occur. Thus, factors such as core values, role expectations, subject matter content, the institution, and the socialization process all force­ fully shape or influence teaching behavior, and are often ignored. Rarely have these factors been incorporated within the instrument in such a way that the description of teaching behavior could be viewed within a logical framework.

Generally, the observational procedures which have been developed were not designed for self-appraisal It appeared there was a definite need for some purposes.

type of instrument which would permit teachers to -analyze and describe their classroom behavior, utilizing video recordings of their teaching.

Definitions of Terms The following definitions apply throughout this


Teacher Self-Appraisal Research Project. A project funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 1965, Title I. An experimental in-service training program sponsored by the Tucson Public Schools, involving 40 inter­ mediate grade teachers. The teachers were given an opportunity to view video recordings ofrtheir classroom behavior and analyze the recordings by utilizing a specially developed observational system.

Teacher Classroom Behavior. • All teacher verbal and non-verbal activities in the classroom.

Teaching.16 An interactive process, primarily involving classroom talk between teacher and pupils which occurs during certain definable activities. The teaching activities include: motivating, planning, informing, leading discussion, disciplining, counseling, and evaluat­ ing.

Teacher Objectives. Teacher statements of anticipated changes in student behavior as a result of selected classroom experiences.

Teacher Methods. Procedures followed, or the pattern of acts, utilized by the teacher that are designed to facilitate the attainment of certain objectives or desired outcomes.

Teacher Expressions. The communication of thought or feeling from one person to another through gesture, posture, facial expression, tone of voice, as well as by speech.

Teacher Verbal Behavior. Oral communication from the teacher to the student, viewed as "teacher talk."

Teacher Non-Verbal Behavior. Inaudible communica­ tion from the teacher to the student, viewed as the "silent language."

Instrument. A classification system for recording teacher or student behaviors.

Amidon, 0£. cit., p. 1.

Video Recorder. Ampex models 6000 and 7100 video units that record audio and video information on magnetic tape for instant playback.

Video Recordings. Classroom activities reproduced on one inch magnetic tape, for playback and analysis on the Ampex Video Recorder.

Organization of the Study The report of this study was organized as follows.

A review of relevant literature was presented in Chapter II. The rationale of the study was discussed in Chapter III, followed by the presentation of the modified instru­ ment in Chapter IV. The procedures used in the instrument development were presented in Chapter V, with Chapter VI containing the summary, conclusions, and the implications of the study.

Summary Many attempts have been made to develop some systematic observational system that would permit the collection of data about teacher classroom behavior for~the purpose of describing and analyzing the teaching act. Thus far, little attention has been directed to involving the teacher in the analysis of the teaching act. This has resulted from a lack of suitable equipment for visual recording of teacher classroom behavior.

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