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«BEHOLD A PALE HORSE Milton William Cooper And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat upon him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And ...»

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The Convener shall present the Watchkeeper's findings to the Senate, and if it be judged to be in the public interest, they shall be made public or, without being made public, be sent to the appropriate agency for its guidance and such action as may be needed. On recommendation of the Watchkeeper the Senate may initiate corrective measures to be voted on by the House of Representatives within thirty days. When approved by a majority and not vetoed by the President, they shall become law.

For the Watchkeeping Service one-quarter of one percent of individual net taxable incomes shall be held by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs; but amounts not expended in any fiscal year shall be available for general use.

B. The House of Representatives SECTION 1. The House of Representatives shall be original lawmaking body of the Newstates of America.

SECTION 2.It shall convene each yell on the second Tuesday in July and shall remain in continuous session except that it may adjourn to the call of a Speaker, elected by a majority vote from 260 • BEHOLD A PALE HORSE William Cooper among the Representatives-at-large, who shall be its presiding officer.

SECTION 3. It shall be a duty to implement the provisions of this constitution and, in legislature to be guided by them.

SECTION 4. Party leaders and their deputies shall be chosen by caucus at the beginning of each session.

SECTION 5. Standing and temporary committees shall be selected as follows:

Committees dealing with the calendaring and management of bills shall have a majority of members nominated to party caucuses by the Speaker; other members shall be nominated by minority leaders Membership shall correspond to the parties' proportions at the last election. If nominations be not approved by a majority of the caucus, the Speaker or the minority leaders shall nominate others until a majority shall approve.

Members of other committees shall be chosen by party caucus in proportion to the results of the last election. Chairmen shall be elected annually from among at-large-members.

Bills referred to committees shall be returned to the house with recommendations within sixty days unless extension be voted by the House.

In all committee actions names of those voting for and against shall be recorded.

No committee chairman may serve longer than six years.

SECTION 6. Approved legislation, not objected to by the Senate within the allotted time, shall be presented to the President for his approval or disapproval.

If the President disapprove,and threequarters of the House membership still approve, it shall become law. The names of those voting for and against shall be recorded. Bills not returned within eleven days shall become law.

SECTION 7.The President may have thirty days to consider measures approved by the House unless they shall have been submitted twelve days previous to adjournment.

SECTION 8. The house shall consider promptly the annual budget; if there be objection, it shall be notified to the Planning Board; The Board shall then resubmit through the President; and,with his comments, it shall be returned to the House.

If there still be objection by a two-thirds majority, the House shall prevail. Objection must be by whole title; titles not objected to when voted on shall constitute appropriation.

The budget for the fiscal year shall be in effect on January 1. Titles not yet acted on shall be as in the former budget until action be completed.

SECTION 9. It shall be the duty of the House to make laws concerning taxes.

1. For their laying and collection:

a. They shall be uniform, and shall not be retroactive.

b. Except such as may be authorized by law to be laid by Authorities, or by the Newstates, all collections shall be made by a national revenue agency. This shall include collections for trust funds hereinafter authorized.

c. Except for corporate levies to be held in the National Sharing Fund, hereinafter authorized, taxes may be collected only from individuals and only from incomes; but there may be withholding from current incomes.

d.To assist in the maintenance of economic stability, the President may be authorized to alter rates by executive order.

e. They shall be imposed on profitmaking enterprises owned or conducted by religious establishments or other nonprofit organizations.

f. There shall be none on food, medicines, residential rentals, or commodities or services designated by law as necessities; and there shall be no double taxation.

g. None shall be levied for registering ownership or transfer of property.

2. For expenditure from revenues:

a. For the purposes detailed in the annual budget unless objection be made by the procedure prescribed herein.

b. For such other purposes as the House may indicate and require the Planning Board to include in revision of the budget; but, except in declared emergency, the total may not exceed the President's estimate of available funds.

3. For fixing the percentage of net corporate taxable incomes to be paid into a National Sharing Fund to be held in the custody of the Chancellor of Financial Affairs and made available for such welfare and environmental purposes as are authorized by law.





4. To provide for the regulation of commerce with other nations and among the Newstates, Possessions, Territories; or, as shall be mutually agreed, with other organized governments; but exports shall not be taxed; and imports shall not be taxed except on recommendation of the President at

Chapter 14 Proposed Constitutional Model: Newstates of America • 261

rates whose allowable variations shall have been fixed by law. There shall be no quotas, and no nations favored by special rates, unless by special acts requiring two-thirds majorities.

5. To establish, or provide for the establishment of, institutions for the safekeeping of savings, for the gathering and distribution of capital, for the issuance of credit, for regulating the coinage of money, for controlling the media of exchange, and for stabilizing prices; but such institutions, when not public or semipublic, shall be regarded as affected with the public interest and shall be supervised by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs.

6. To establish institutions for insurance against risks and liabilities for communication, transportation, and others commonly used and necessary for public convenience.

8. To assist in the maintenance of world order,and, for this purpose, when the President shall recommend, to vest jurisdiction in international legislative, judicial, or administrative agencies.

9. To develop with other peoples, and for the benefit of all, the resources of space, of other bodies in the universe, and of the seas beyond twelve miles from low-water shores unless treaties shall provide other limits.

10. To assist other peoples who have not attained satisfactory levels of well-being; to delegate the administration of funds for assistance, whenever possible, to international agencies; and to invest in or contribute to the furthering of development in other parts of the world.

11. To assure, or to assist in assuring, adequate and equal facilities for education; for training in occupations citizens may be fitted to pursue; and to reeducate or retrain those whose occupations may become obsolete.

12. To establish or to assist institutions devoted to higher education, to research, or to technical training.

13. To establish and maintain, or assist in maintaining, libraries, archives, monuments, and other places of historic interest.

14. To assist in the advancement of sciences and technologies; and to encourage cultural activities.

15. To conserve natural resources by purchase, by withdrawal from use, or by regulation; to provide, or to assist in providing, facilities for recreation; to establish and maintain parks, forests, wilderness areas, wetlands, and prairies; to improve streams and other waters; to ensure the purity of air and water; to control the erosion of soils; and to provide for all else necessary for the protection and common use of the national heritage.

16. To acquire property and improvements for public use at costs to be fixed, if necessary, by the Court of Claims.

17. To prevent the stoppage or hindrance of governmental procedures, or other activities affected with a public interest as defined by law, by reason of disputes between employers and employees, or for other reasons, and for this purpose to provide for conclusive arbitration if adequate provision for collective bargaining fail. From such findings there may be appeal to the Court of Arbitration Review;

but such proceedings may not stay the acceptance of findings.

18. To support an adequate civil service for the performance of such duties as may be designated by administrators; and for this purpose to refrain from interference with the processes of appointment or placement, asking advice or testimony before committees only with the consent of appropriate superiors.

19. To provide for the maintenance of armed forces.

20. To enact such measures as will assist families in making adjustment to future conditions, using estimates concerning population and resources made by the Planning Board.

21. To vote within ninety days on such measures as the President may designate as urgent.

–  –  –

seventeen years. They shall be compensated and shall have no other occupation.

SECTION 3. Under procedures approved by the Board,the Regulator shall charter all corporations or enterprises except those exempted because of size or other characteristics, or those supervised by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs, or by the Intendant, or those whose activities are confined to one Newstate.

Charters shall describe proposed activities, and departure from these shall require amendment on penalty of revocation. For this purpose there shall be investigation and enforcement services under the direction of the Regulator.

SECTION 4. Chartered enterprises in similar industries or occupations may organize joint Authorities.

These may formulate among themselves codes to ensure fair competition, meet external costs, set standards for quality and service, expand trade, increase production, eliminate waste, and assist in standardization. Authorities may maintain for common use services for research and communication; but membership shall be open to all eligible enterprises. Nonmembers shall be required to maintain the same standards as those prescribed for members.

SECTION 5. Authorities shall have governing committees of five, two being appointed by the Regulator to represent the public.

They shall serve as he may determine; they shall be compensated;

and he shall take care that there be no conflicts of interest. The Board may approve or prescribe rules for the distribution of profits to stockholders, allowable amounts of working capital, and reserves. Costing and all other practices affecting the public interest shall be monitored.

All codes shall be subject to review by the Regulator with his board.

SECTION 6. Member enterprises of an Authority shall be exempt from other regulation.

SECTION 7. The Regulator, with his Board, shall fix standards and procedures for mergers of enterprises or the acquisition of some by others; and these shall be in effect unless rejected by the Court of Administrative Settlements.

The purpose shall be to encourage adaptation to change and to further approved intentions for the nation.

SECTION 8. The charters of enterprises may be revoked and Authorities may be dissolved by the Regulator, with the concurrence of the Board, if they restrict the production of goods and services, or controls of their prices; also if external costs are not assessed to their originators or if the ecological impacts of their operations are deleterious.

SECTION 9. Operations extending abroad shall conform to policies notified to the Regulator by the President; and he shall restrict or control such activities as appear to injure the national interest.

SECTION 10. The Regulator shall make rules for and shall supervise marketplaces for goods and services; but this shall not include security exchanges regulated by the Chancellor of Financial Affairs.

SECTION 11. Designation of enterprises affected with a public interest, rules for conduct of enterprises and of their Authorities, and other actions of the Regulator or of the Boards may be appealed to the Court of Administrative Settlements, whose judgments shall be informed by the intention to establish fairness to consumers and competitors and stability in economic affairs.

SECTION 12. Responsible also to the Regulator, there shall be an Operations Commission appointed by the Regulator, unless the Senate object, for the supervision of enterprises owned in whole or in part by government. The commission shall choose its chairman, and he shall be the executive head of a supervisory staff. He may require reports, conduct investigations, and make rules and recommendations concerning surpluses or deficits, the absorption of external costs, standards of service, and rates or prices charged for services or goods.

Each enterprise shall have a director, chosen by and removable by the Commission; and he shall conduct its affairs in accordance with standards fixed by the Commission.

Article VIII The Judicial Branch SECTION 1. There shall be a Principal Justice of the Newstates for America; a Judicial Council;

and a Judicial Assembly. There shall also be a Supreme Court and a High Court of Appeals; also Courts of Claims, Rights and Duties, Administrative Review. Arbitration Settlements, Tax Appeals, and Appeals from Watchkeeper's Findings. There shall be Circuit Courts to be of first resort in suits brought under national law; and they shall hear appeals from courts of the Newstates.

Other courts may be established by law on recommendation of the Principal Justice with the Judicial Council.

SECTION 2. The Principal Justice shall preside over the judicial system, shall appoint the members of all national courts, and, unless the Judicial Council object, shall make us rules; also, through an

Chapter 14 Proposed Constitutional Model: Newstates of America • 263

Administrator, supervise its operations.

SECTION 3. The Judicial Assembly shall consist of Circuit Court Judges, together with those of the High Courts of the Newstates of America and those of the highest courts of the Newstates.

It shall meet annually, or at the call of the Principal Justice, to consider the state of the Judiciary and such other matters as may be laid before it.

It shall also meet at the call of the Convener to nominate three candidates for the Principal Justiceship whenever a vacancy shall occur. From these nominees the Senate shall choose the one having the most votes.

SECTION 4. The Principal Justice, unless the Senate object to any, shall appoint a Judicial Council of five members to serve during his incumbency.

He shall designate a senior member who shall preside in his absence.

It shall be the duty of the Council, under the direction of the Principal Justice, to study the courts in operation, to prepare codes of ethics to be observed by members, and to suggest changes in procedure.

The Council may ask the advice of the Judicial Assembly.

It shall also be a duty of the Council, as hereinafter provided, to suggest Constitutional amendments when they appear to be necessary; and it shall also draft revisions if they shall be required. Further it shall examine,and from time to time cause to be revised, civil and criminal codes; these, when approved by the Judicial Assembly, shall be in effect throughout the nation.



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