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«This page left intentionally blank. United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA-540-R-05-012 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response OSWER ...»

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U.S. EPA. In preparation1. Evaluation of Contaminated Sediment Fate and Transport Models, Final Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, 141 pp.

U.S. EPA. In preparation2. Evaluation of Chemical Bioaccumulation Models of Aquatic Ecosystems, Final Report, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, 122 pp.

U.S. EPA and USACE. 1992. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal: Testing Manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection, Washington, DC, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. EPA 503/8-91/001.

February.

U.S. EPA and USACE. 1998. Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Discharge in Waters of the U.S. - Inland Testing Manual. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC. EPA 823/B-98/004.

U.S. EPA and USACE. 2000. A Guide to Developing and Documenting Cost Estimates During the Feasibility Study. EPA 540-R-00-002. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hazardous Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Center of Expertise, Omaha, Nebraska, and U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC. July. Available at:

http://www.epa.gov/oerrpage/superfund/resources/remedy/finaldoc.pdf.

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Van Oostrum, R.W. 1992. Dredging of contaminated sediment between pre-dredging survey and treatment. In: Proc. of the International Symposium on Environmental Dredging, Buffalo, New York.

Warner, G.F. 1977. On the Shapes of Passive Suspension-Feeders. In Keegan, B.F., P.O. Ceidigh, and P.J.S. Boaden, eds. Biology of Benthic Organisms. New York.

Wiles, C.C., and E. Barth. 1992. “Solidification/Stabilization: Is it Always Appropriate?” Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes, 2nd Volume, ASTM STP 1123, T.M. Gilliam and C.C. Wiles, Eds. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp.

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Winter, T.C. 2002. Subaqueous Capping and Natural Recovery: Understanding the Hydrogeologic Setting at Contaminated Sediment Sites, DOER Technical Notes Collection. ERDC TN-DOERC26, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi http://www.wes.army.mil/el/dots/doer.

Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites Zaidi, B. R., G. Stucki, and M. Alexander. 1988. Low chemical concentrations and pH as factors

limiting the success of inoculation to enhance biodegradation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:

143–151.

Zappi, P.A., and D.F. Hayes. 1991. Innovative Technologies for Dredging Contaminated Sediments.

Miscellaneous Paper EL-91-20. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Zar, J.H. 1999. Biostatistical Analysis Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Zimmerman, J.R., U. Ghosh, R.G. Luthy, R.N. Millward, and T.S. Bridges. 2004. Addition of carbon sorbents to reduce PCB and PAH bioavailability in marine sediments: physiochemical tests.

Environ. Sci. Technol. 38:5458–5464.

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APPENDIX A: PRINCIPLES FOR MANAGING

CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT RISKS AT

HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

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Appendix A: 11 Principles

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This guidance will help EPA site managers make scientifically sound and nationally consistent risk management decisions at contaminated sediment sites. It presents 11 risk management principles that Remedial Project Managers (RPMs), On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), and RCRA Corrective Action project managers should carefully consider when planning and conducting site investigations, involving the affected parties, and selecting and implementing a response.

This guidance recommends that EPA site managers make risk-based site decisions using an iterative decision process, as appropriate, that evaluates the short-term and long-term risks of all potential cleanup alternatives consistent with the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan’s (NCP’s) nine remedy selection criteria (40 CFR Part 300.430).

EPA site managers are also encouraged to consider the societal and cultural impacts of existing sediment contamination and of potential remedies through meaningful involvement of affected stakeholders.

This guidance also responds in part to the recommendations contained in the National Research Council (NRC) report discussed below.

–  –  –

II. BACKGROUND

On March 26, 2001, the NRC published a report entitled A Risk Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments. Although the NRC report focuses primarily on assessment and remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments, much of the information in that report is applicable to other contaminants. Site managers are encouraged to read the NRC report, which may be found at http://www.nrc.edu.

In addition to developing these principles, OSWER, in coordination with other EPA offices (Office of Research and Development, Office of Water, and others) and other federal agencies (Department of Defense/U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of the Interior/U.S.





Fish and Wildlife Service, and others) is developing a separate guidance, Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites (Sediment Guidance). The Sediment Guidance will provide more detailed technical guidance on the process that Superfund and RCRA project managers should use to evaluate cleanup alternatives at contaminated sediment sites.

While this directive applies to all contaminants at sediment sites addressed under CERCLA or RCRA, its implementation at particular sites should be tailored to the size and complexity of the site, to the magnitude of site risks, and to the type of action contemplated.

These principles can be applied within the framework of EPA’s existing statutory and regulatory requirements.

III. RISK MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES

1. Control Sources Early.

As early in the process as possible, site managers should try to identify all direct and indirect continuing sources of significant contamination to the sediments under investigation.

These sources might include discharges from industries or sewage treatment plants, spills, precipitation runoff, erosion of contaminated soil from stream banks or adjacent land, contaminated groundwater and non-aqueous phase liquid contributions, discharges from storm water and combined sewer outfalls, upstream contributions, and air deposition.

Next, site managers should assess which continuing sources can be controlled and by what mechanisms. It may be helpful to prioritize sources according to their relative contributions to site risks. In the identification and assessment process, site managers should solicit assistance from those with relevant information, including regional Water, Air, and PCB Programs (where applicable); state agencies (especially those responsible for setting Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) and those that issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination A-2 Appendix A: 11 Principles System (NPDES) permits); and all Natural Resource Trustees. Local agencies and stakeholders may also be of assistance in assessing which sources can be controlled.

Site managers should evaluate the potential for future recontamination of sediments when selecting a response action. If a site includes a source that could result in significant recontamination, source control measures will likely be necessary as part of that response action.

However, where EPA believes that the source can be controlled, or where sediment remediation will have benefits to human health and/or the environment after considering the risks caused by the ongoing source, it may be appropriate for the Agency to select a response action for the sediments prior to completing all source control actions. This is consistent with principle #5 below, which indicates that it may be necessary to take phased or interim actions (e.g., removal of a hot spot that is highly susceptible to downstream movement or dispersion of contaminants) to prevent or address environmental impacts or to control human exposures, even if source control actions have not been undertaken or completed.

2. Involve the Community Early and Often.

Contaminated sediment sites often involve difficult technical and social issues. As such, it is especially important that a project manager ensure early and meaningful community involvement by providing community members with the technical information needed for their informed participation. Meaningful community involvement is a critical component of the site characterization, risk assessment, remedy evaluation, remedy selection, and remedy implementation processes. Community involvement enables EPA to obtain site information that may be important in identifying potential human and ecological exposures, as well as in understanding the societal and cultural impacts of the contamination and of the potential response options. The NRC report (p. 249) “recommends that increased efforts be made to provide the affected parties with the same information that is to be used by the decision-makers and to include, to the extent possible, all affected parties in the entire decision-making process at a contaminated site. In addition, such information should be made available in such a manner that allows adequate time for evaluation and comment on the information by all parties.” Through Technical Assistance Grants and other mechanisms, project managers can provide the community with the tools and information necessary for meaningful participation, ensuring their early and continued involvement in the cleanup process.

Although the Agency has the responsibility to make the final cleanup decision at CERCLA and RCRA sites, early and frequent community involvement facilitates acceptance of Agency decisions, even at sites where there may be disagreement among members of the community on the most appropriate remedy.

Site managers and community involvement coordinators should take into consideration the following six practices, which were recently presented in OSWER Directive 9230.0-99 Early

–  –  –

and Meaningful Community Involvement (October 12, 2001). This directive also includes a list of other useful resources and is available at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/pubs.htm.

(1) Energize the community involvement plan.

(2) Provide early, proactive community support.

(3) Get the community more involved in the risk assessment.

(4) Seek early community input on the scope of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS).

(5) Encourage community involvement in identification of future land use.

(6) Do more to involve communities during removals.

3. Coordinate with States, Local Governments, Tribes, and Natural Resource Trustees.

Site managers should communicate and coordinate early with states, local governments, tribes, and all Natural Resource Trustees. By doing so, they will help ensure that the most relevant information is considered in designing site studies, and that state, local, tribal, and trustee viewpoints are considered in the remedy selection process. For sites that include waterbodies where TMDLs are being or have been developed, it is especially important to coordinate site investigations and monitoring or modeling studies with the state and with EPA’s water program. In addition, sharing information early with all interested parties often leads to quicker and more efficient protection of human health and the environment through a coordinated cleanup approach.

Superfund’s statutory mandate is to ensure that response actions will be protective of human health and the environment. EPA recognizes, however, that in addition to EPA’s response action(s), restoration activities by the Natural Resource Trustees may be needed. It is important that Superfund site managers and the Trustees coordinate both the EPA investigations of risk and the Trustee investigations of resource injuries in order to most efficiently use federal and state resources and to avoid duplicative efforts.

Additional information on coordinating with Trustees may be found in OSWER Directive 9200.4-22A CERCLA Coordination with Natural Resource Trustees (July 1997), in the 1992 ECO Update The Role of Natural Resource Trustees in the Superfund Process http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/risk/tooleco.htm), and in the 1999 OSWER Directive 9285.7-28 P Ecological Risk Assessment and Risk Management Principles for Superfund Sites (also available at the above web site). Additional information on coordinating with states and tribes can be found in OSWER Directive 9375.3-03P The Plan to Enhance the Role of States and Tribes in the Superfund Program (http://www.epa.gov/superfund/states/strole/index.htm).

A-4 Appendix A: 11 Principles

4. Develop and Refine a Conceptual Site Model that Considers Sediment Stability.

A conceptual site model should identify all known and suspected sources of contamination, the types of contaminants and affected media, existing and potential exposure pathways, and the known or potential human and ecological receptors that may be threatened.

This information is frequently summarized in pictorial or graphical form, backed up by sitespecific data. The conceptual site model should be prepared early and used to guide site investigations and decision-making. However, it should be updated periodically whenever new information becomes available, and EPA’s understanding of the site problems increases. In addition, it frequently can serve as the centerpiece for communication among all stakeholders.

A conceptual site model is especially important at sediment sites because the interrelationship of soil, surface and groundwater, sediment, and ecological and human receptors is often complex. In addition, sediments may be subject to erosion or transport by natural or man-made disturbances such as floods or engineering changes in a waterway. Because sediments may experience temporal, physical, and chemical changes, it is especially important to understand what contaminants are currently available to humans and wildlife, and whether this is likely to change in the future under various scenarios. The risk assessor and project manager, as well as other members of the site team, should communicate early and often to ensure that they share a common understanding of the site and the basis for the present and future risks. The May 1998 EPA Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment (Federal Register 63(93) 26846-26924, http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/risk/tooleco.htm), the 1997 Superfund Guidance Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Process for Designing and Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments (EPA 540-R-97-006, also available at the above web site), and the 1989 Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), Volume 1, Part A (EPA 540-1-89-002, http://www.epa.gov/superfund/programs/risk/ragsa) provide guidance on developing conceptual site models.

5. Use an Iterative Approach in a Risk-Based Framework.

The NRC report (p. 52) recommends the use of a risk-based framework based on the one developed by the Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management (PCCRARM, 1997, Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management, Vol.



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