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«Damian Grenfell, Mayra Walsh, Januario Soares, Sofie Anselmie, Annie Sloman, Victoria Stead no Anna Trembath ...»

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48 Porezemplu, Haree, The Asia Foundation, Law and Justice in East Timor: A Survey of Citizen Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Law and Justice in East Timor, The Asia Foundation, Washington, 2004.

49 David Hicks, Tetum Ghosts and Kin: Fertility and Gender in East Timor, 2nd edition, Waveland Press, Illinois, 2004.

Dezafiu atu Harii Movimentu Justisa Inkluzivu iha Timor-Leste50 Lia Kent51 Durante tinan sanulu ikuikus relatóriu no artigu barak dada atensaun ba nesesidade urjente atu dezenvolve Timor-Leste nia setór justisa formál, hametin instituisaun justisa nian sira no hatán ba krime hosi pasadu hodi hafó fundasaun metin ida atu harii nasaun foun. Ha’u-nia surat hola perspetiva diferente uitoan liuhosi konsidera kontribuisaun ba prosesu harii nasaun hosi sosiedade sivíl Timor-Leste nia movimentu ba justisa. Ha’u halosun katak, Lia Kent liuhosi defende ‘justisa’ ba violasaun direitus umanus tempu uluk nian, sosiedade sivíl nia organizasaun sira hala’o papél importante ida bainhira sira disputa diskursu ‘ofisiál’ kona-ba harii nasaun, no kontribui daudaun ba hanoin ida kona-ba vizaun alternativa harii nasaun ho baze ba nesesidade atu rekoñese ema baibain sira-nia esperiénsia durante konflitu. Tuirfali ha’u halo reflesaun kona-ba dezafiu sira ne’ebé mosu daudaun ba movimentu justisa nian nu’udar rezultadu hosi governu nia prioridade atuál kona-ba harii nasaun, no iha jerál, iha kontestu ida ne’ebé Timoroan sira hasoru violénsia ‘estruturál’ ka violénsia loroloron nian.52 Atu hatán ba dezafiu sira-ne’e ha’u sujere dalan balu tuir ne’ebé organizasaun balu iha sosiedade sivíl laran bele konsidera haluan karik sira-nia esforsu atu sai inkluzivu liután ba indivíduu no komunidade sira-nia esperiénsia aat oioin.

Introdusaun Timor ninia organizasaun la’ós governu nian (OLG) naran-boot— hamutuk ho rede internasionál OLG direitus umanus sira—iha dékada ikuikus ativu defende nesesidade ba ‘justisa’ hasoru krime sériu sira ne’ebé komete durante okupasaun Indonézia tomak, no mós durante no tuituir kedas Referendu tinan 1999 nian. Halibur hamutuk ho liafuan ‘laiha rekonsiliasaun lahó justisa’, sira haksesuk katak akuzasaun ba ema sira ne’ebé komete krime hasoru umanidade no krime funu nian, no rekoñesimentu ba aat ne’ebé halo ba vítima sira, mak buat ida esensiál ba prosesu harii nasaun iha Timor-Leste.

50 Surat ne’e hakbiban peskiza ne’ebé halo ba ha’u-nia teze doutoramentu durante tinan 2007 no 2008 kona-ba efeitu sosiál hosi prosesu justisa tranzisionál iha Timor-Leste iha distritu Suai, Likisá, Lautein no Dili.

51 Lia Kent doutoranda ida iha Melbourne University, iha School of Political and Social Sciences 52 Nu’udar ezemplu haree Philippe Bourgois and Nancy Scheper-Hughes, ‘Introduction: Making Sense of Violence’ in Philippe Bourgois and Nancy Scheper-Hughes, eds, Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology, Blackwell Publishing, 2004, pp. 1-32; Paul Farmer, Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights and the New War on the Poor, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2005; Johan Galtung, ‘Violence, Peace and Peace Research’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 6, no. 3, 1969, pp. 167-91.

Hodi rekoñesimentu ba nesesidade atu koordena sira-nia esforsu ho efetividade liután, iha tinan 2002 ONG balu, reprezentante Igreja nian, vítima sira-nia família no estudante sira harii Aliansa Nasionál Timor Leste ba Tribunál Internasionál. Rede ne’e hala’o nafatin advokasia atu harii tribunál kriminál internasionál ida ba Timor-Leste, hanesan tribunál sira ne’ebé harii ba Ruanda no eis-Jugoslávia hodi halo julgamentu ba sira ne’ebé responsavel liu ba violénsia iha Timor-Leste, inklui mós membru superiór sira hosi forsa militár Indonézia.53 Rede ne’e ativu iha nivel internasionál no rejionál iha ne’ebé lobi Nasoins Unidas (UN) nia Konsellu Direitus Umanus (uluk Nasoins Unidas nia Komisaun Direitus Umanus), harii relasaun ho movimentu solidariedade internasionál no organizasaun internasionál direitus umanus xave, no rede ho organizasaun seluk kona-ba direitu vítima nian iha rejiaun Ázia tomak. Iha Timor-Leste laran, Aliansa ne’e lobi tiha governu nasionál kona-ba nesesidade atu harii sistema judisiál ida ne’ebé forte no imparsiál, hodi hatudu ligasaun entre fallansu atu responsabiliza ema sira ne’ebé komete krime sériu ho kriasaun kultura impunidade nian iha oras daudaun. Foin daudaun, bazeia ba rekoñesimentu ida boot badaudaun katak OLG sira-nia foku ba akuzasaun la reprezenta no tau matan iha okaziaun hotu-hotu ba vítima sira-nia preokupasaun materiál prátiku—hakaran ida hosi ema barak ne’ebé sai vítima hato’o ba estadu atu ‘tau matan mai ami’—sira ne’ebé promove justisa hahú haluan sira-nia esforsu advokasia nian atu inklui kestaun kompensasaun ba vítima sira.

Treinamentu konferénsia nian Timór-Leste nia movimentu ba justisa hafó dezafiu importante ida ba diskursu harii nasaun nian hosi lideransa polítika. Aspetu xave ida hosi diskursu ofisiál ne’e mak foku ne’ebé tau ba ‘futuru’ envés de ba ‘pasadu’, no inkluidu iha lideransa nia énfaze badaudaun kona-ba ideia rekonsiliasaun nian nu’udar perdaun, dezenvolvimentu, no nesesidade pragmátika atu harii relasaun diplomátika ho Indonézia. Parte integrante ida seluk envoka nesesidade atu hanoin-hetan no komemora versaun pasadu nian ne’ebé triunfante ka gloriozu iha ne’ebé papél luta rezisténsia nian mak mahuluk, no deskreve Timoroan hotu-hotu hanesan ‘eroi’. Vizaun ida-ne’e reflete tiha iha governu nia foku atuál atu valoriza ema sira ne’ebé hala’o papél lideransa durante movimentu armadu ka klandestinu liuhosi fahe medalla no pensaun, no mós sai parte integrante ba abordajen ofisiál hodi komemora pasadu.54 Porezemplu, loron invazaun Indonézia iha Timor-Leste, 7 Sosializasaun iha eskola besik Maubisse, April 2009 Dezembru 1975, komemora ofisialmente hanesan ‘Loron Nasionál Eroi’ nian.





53 Tribunál Internasionál ba Eis-Jugoslávia (ICTY) no Tribunál Internasionál ba Ruanda (ICTR) 54 Nu’udar ezemplu haree Michael Leach, ‘Valorising the Resistance: National Identity and Collective Memory in Timor Leste’s Constitution’, Social Alternatives, vol. 21, no. 3, 2002, pp. 43-47.

Maibé kontrasta ho ida-ne’e, parese katak iha diferensa boot entre diskursu ofisiál kona-ba hariiasaun ho opiniaun hosi ema sira ne’ebé konsidera an hanesan povu ki’ik. Ema sira-ne’e barak, iha sentru podér nia li’ur, konsidera katak rekoñesimentu no resposta ofisiál ida ba terus hosi pasadu hanesan buat ida importante tebetebes atu bele hahú fali moris loroloron nian no atu hahilas futuru koletivu ida.55 Ema barak hato’o opiniaun katak, tanba sira-nia esperiénsia opresaun no terus durante okupasaun Indonézia no sira la envolve an iha luta rezisténsia liuhosi dalan formál ida, sira la identifika an rasik ho liafuan ‘eroi’.56 Iha kontestu ida-ne’e, sosiedade sivíl nia movimentu ba justisa kontribui daudaun ba hahilas vizaun alternativa ida kona-ba harii nasaun ne’ebé bazeia ba nesesidade atu rekoñese esperiénsia hosi ema baibain sira-nia ne’ebé sai marjinalizadu iha prosesu atu hatudu TimorLeste ida ne’ebé unidu, ne’ebé halo tiha ona rekonsiliasaun no hakarak hateke ba futuru.

Dezafiu ba Movimentu Justisa iha Kontestu Violénsia Estruturál nian Apezarde papél importante tebetebes hosi sosiedade sivíl nia movimentu ba justisa hodi dezafia diskursu ofisiál sira, importante mós atu halo reflesaun kona-ba dezafiu balu ne’ebé mosu daudaun, liuliu tanba governu atuál nia prioridade sira ba harii nasaun. Hori ‘krize’ tinan 2006 nian Timor-Leste nia governu—ho apoiu hosi doadór internasionál sira—hafó daudaun asisténsia finanseira ba grupu interese oioin, inklui grupu sira ne’ebé konsidera hanesan ameasa polítika no grupu sira ne’ebé konak liu ho governu nia deskrisaun favorita kona-ba harii nasaun. Atu buka hetan estabilidade, governu halo pagamentu osan ba ‘petisionáriu’ sira (militár sira ne’ebé hamutuk ho Alfredo Reinado nia grupu rebelde iha tinan 2006), família hosi membru polísia sira ne’ebé forsa militár oho iha tinan 2006, no ema sira ne’ebé sai dezlokadu internu, no mós pensaun ba veteranu sira. Inisiativa sira-ne’e hamosu laran-hirus iha komunidade leet hosi ema sira ne’ebé sente katak sira ‘lakon.’57 Iha kontestu ne’e, problema ida ne’ebé mosu ba movimentu justisa ninia kampaña atuál kona-ba kompensasaun ba ‘vítima’ sira iha potensiál atu sai grupu ida tan iha sosiedade laran ne’ebé halo kompetisaun ho grupu desfavoresidu no marjinalizadu seluseluk atu hetan estadu nia rekursu limitadu sira. Defaktu, foin daudaun ha’u rona iha rádiu nasionál iha Timor-Leste komentáriu ida hosi membru naran boot hosi organizasaun feto faluk nian ne’ebé sujere katak ‘Di’ak liu se ita vitima 1999 nian organiza an hodi ba hela iha kampu refujiadu’ [atubele simu asisténsia estadu nian].58 Haboot potensiál ba kompetisaun mak realidade katak Timoroan sira hasoru tinan barak ‘violensia estruturál’ durante okupasaun Indonézia.59 Diferente hosi forma violénsia direta seluk hanesan ohoema, estraga feto no tortura, violénsia estruturál ne’e inklui forma violénsia sistemátika ne’ebé mai hosi estrutura no instituisaun sosiál sira bainhira hanetik ema sira atu satisfás sira-nia nesesidade bázika hanesan ai-han, alojamentu, kuidadu saúde no bee.60 Kontrasta ho terus maka’as, tempu badak nian ne’ebé akontese ho violénsia direta, violénsia estruturál fali hatudu ninia oin no sai realidade iha tempu naruk laran, esperiénsia króniku no loroloron nian kona-ba ‘mortalidade infantíl’, hamlaha badaudaun, moras, dezesperu no umillasaun, ne’ebé dala barak ‘invizivel ka rekoñese sala’ tanba ita-nia tendénsia 55 Observasaun kampu iha Suai, Likisá, Lautein no Dili, 2007 no 2008 56 ibid.

57 ibid.

58 Komentáriu ne’ebé rona iha loron 20 Jullu 2008.

59 Nu’udar ezemplu haree Farmer, Pathologies of Power; Bourgois and Scheper-Hughes ‘Making Sense of Violence’; Joseph Nevins, A Not so Distant Horror: Mass Violence in East Timor, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2005; Joseph Nevins, ‘(Mis) representing East Timor’s Past: Structural-symbolic Violence, International Law, and the Institutionalization of Injustice’, Journal of Human Rights, vol.1, no.4, 2002, pp. 523-540; Elizabeth Stanley, Torture, Truth and Justice: The Case of TimorLeste, Routledge, London, 2009.

60 Galtung, ‘Violence, Peace and Peace Research’.

atu haree forma violénsia sira-ne’e hanesan halo parte ba status quo.61 Iha okupasaun Indonézia nia okos violénsia estruturál ne’e bele haree momoos hosi esperiénsia krónika no jerál kona-ba pobreza, deznutrisaun, mortalidade materna, analfabetizmu no ta’uk ne’ebé halo parte moris loroloron nian, no dala barak ema hasoru hamutuk ho forma violénsia ‘direta’ hanesan halakon ema, tortura no oho-ema. Violénsia ‘loroloron’ nian ne’e mosu, ka sai maka’as liu, tanba estrutura no polítika diskriminatória sira hosi okupasaun Indonézia ne’ebé hamosu hodi kontrola populasaun, sobu relasaun sosiál sira no komunidade sira-nia koezaun ka unidade, no promove deskonfiansa. Maski bele dehan katak debilitante mós hanesan forma violénsia direta nian, violénsia estruturál ne’ebé ema hasoru loroloron hetan atensaun menus liu.62 Efeitu violénsia estruturál nian kontinua soe nia sanak iha TimorLeste pos-konflitu, ne’ebé mak tuir Relatóriu Dezenvolvimentu Umanu ikusliu hosi Programa Nasoin Unidas ba Dezenvolvimentu (PNUD), sei nafatin rain ida hosi rain sira ne’ebé kiak liu iha munduraiklaran.63 Nivel saúde nian sei ki’ik nafatin, hosi parte ida tanba ema barak la konsege hetan asesu fasil ba servisu saúde, no estimativa kona-ba esperansa moris nian mak tinan 55 ho balun de’it. Populasaun balun laiha asesu ba bee-moos no 60 porsentu laiha asesu ba saneamentu adekuadu. Oras daudaun 64 porsentu hosi populasaun terus ho inseguransa ai-han nian ne’ebé maka’as liu iha área rurál sira, iha ne’ebé umakain sira kuran ai-han entre Alex Gusmão, depois de lansamentu relatoriu fulan Novembru to’o Fevereiru. Taxa alfabetizasaun nian mós Universidade RMIT nian, ‘Komprende Komunidade’ ki’ik tebes, no piór liu ba feto sira; kuaze katoluk rua feto sira ho idade 15-60 mak analfabeta kompara ho mane sira ne’ebé lato’o metade.64 Iha kontestu ida-ne’e, ne’ebé violénsia estruturál iha efeitu global, debilitante no badaudaun, no ne’ebé governu atuál iha ninia prioridade rasik atu fahe estadu nia rekursu limitadu, iha potensiál ida ba ‘vítima’ hosi violénsia direta atu tama konflitu ho grupu marjinalizadu seluseluk iha luta ba rekursu sira, no potensiál ba konflitu atu mosu entre tipu vítima oioin sira.

Dalan ba Movimentu Justisa ida ne’ebé Inkluzivu Liu?

Kontestu violénsia estruturál iha Timor-Leste hamosu dezafiu ida ba sosiedade sivíl nia movimentu ba justisa atu hanoin maka’as liután kona-ba saida mak ‘justisa’ presiza, no atu halo reflesaun kona-ba interese sé nian mak debate justisa nian reprezenta no sé Francisco da Silva simu sertidaun treinamentu 61 Bourgois and Scheper-Hughes ‘Making Sense of Violence’, p. 2.

62 Haree mós Nevins, A Not so Distant Horror and Stanley, Torture, Truth and Justice.

63 United Nations Development Program, ‘The Path Out of Poverty’, UNDP Human Development Report Timor- Leste 2006, available at: http://hdr.undp.

org/en/reports/nationalreports/asiathepacific/timorleste/TIMOR_LESTE_2006_ en.pdf, accessed 16 September 2009.

64 ibid.

mak eskluidu. Iha seksaun ida-ne’e, Ha’u oferese reflesaun balu kona-ba kestaun sira-ne’e. Maibé, bainhira halo ne’e Ha’u rekoñese katak justisa nia defensór barak tau matan daudaun ba kestaun sirane’e barak.

Durante tinan sanulu ikuikus, Timor-Leste nia movimentu ba justisa evolui maka’as hosi preokupasaun foufoun ida ho violénsia 1999 nian ba fali rekoñesimentu ida boot badaudaun kona-ba nesesidade atu rezolve violénsia nia forma oioin no halik ne’ebé ema hasoru durante tinan ruanulu-resin-haat okupasaun Indonézia nian, ne’ebé inklui mós violénsia ne’ebé movimentu rezisténsia halo. Hamutuk ho ida-ne’e mak konxiénsia boot badaudaun katak OLG sira iha tendénsia atu ko’alia ‘lori naran’ vítima sira-nian envezde hametin vítima sira-nia lian polítiku rasik. Aleinde ne’e, iha rekoñesimentu ida katak vítima sira ne’ebé envolve an ba advokasia iha nivel nasionál dala barak sira pertense ba grupu ‘elite’ ne’ebé iha edukasaun, moris iha área asesivel sira, iha ligasaun ba OLG direitus umanus sira, no ladún reprezenta forma aat oioin ne’ebé ema hasoru durante konflitu.65 Hodi hatán ba preokupasaun sira-ne’e, OLG sira fó atensaun liután atu tulun vítima sira-nia esforsu rasik kona-ba advokasia, inklui liuhosi hafó apoiu atu harii grupu lokál vítima sira-nian no sira-nia atividade badaudaun iha nivel distritu, subdistritu no suku nian. ‘Kongresu Nasionál ba Vítima sira’ ne’ebé hala’o foin daudaun durante fulan Setembru tinan ida-ne’e iha Dili—durante ne’ebé OLG sira tulun vítima atus ida limanulu ho sira-nia família hosi rain laran tomak halibur hamutuk atu ko’alia kona-ba harii Rede Nasionál ba Vítima—nu’udar ezemplu ida kona-ba posibilidade sira ne’ebé mosu daudaun ba advokasia hosi parte vítima sira-nian66.



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