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«Damian Grenfell, Mayra Walsh, Januario Soares, Sofie Anselmie, Annie Sloman, Victoria Stead no Anna Trembath ...»

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Nosaun ida-ne’e kona-ba sentru no periferia (ninin) iha estadu Timor-Leste laran David Hicks mak uza hodi deskreve ‘natureza ejemónika’ estadu sentrál nian, ketak hosi maioria Timoroan sira ne’ebé tuur iha ‘periferia’.82 Haree hosi perspetiva komunidade lokál nian iha suku, estadu no ninia governu sentrál kala hanesan dook tebes no indiferente ka la hanoin povu. Kuaze Timor nia populasaun balun ida moris iha liña pobreza nia okos no katoluk ida moris iha liña pobreza maka’as nia okos. Defaktu pobreza aumenta maka’as entre tinan 2001 no 2007, hodi reflete estagnasaun ba ekonomia ida ne’ebé la’ós petróleu nian.83 Ba komunidade rurál barakliu ne’ebé moris hosi agrikultura subsisténsia nian, sosiedade sivíl hola nia forma Timor lokál nian.84 Nune’e estadu iha Timor sofre hosi dikotomia kulturál no polítika.

Programa ba Desentralizasaun iha Timor-Leste Governu Fretilin hahú dezenvolve estrutura ida ba reforma governu lokál nian iha tinan 2003 maibe foin hahú implementa programa ne’e iha tinan 2006. Krize polítika ne’ebé mosu iha tinan ne’e no mós mudansa governu nian hafoin eleisaun tinan 2007 nian interrompe prosesu ne’e. Hafoin konsidera filafali reforma nia modelu, governu AMP publika guia polítika nian iha fulan Marsu 2008 ne’ebé trasa modelu báziku ida atu estabelese liuhosi lejizlasaun.85 Governu halo ezbosu ba lei tolu ne’ebé tuirfali hetan aprovasaun hosi Konsellu Ministrus iha fulan Fevereiru, 2009. Lejislasaun ne’e hetan mudansa signifikativu balu hosi modelu ne’ebé estabelese iha fulan Marsu 2008, no kompostu ho Lei Divizaun Administrativa no Territoriál nian, no Lei Eleitorál Munisipál nian. Tenke nota katak sira-ne’e dekretulei ne’ebé Konsellu Ministru hakerek no la’ós lei ne’ebé mosu mai hosi Parlamentu (maski iha kazu ne’e lei sira-ne’e haruka ba Parlamentu Nasionál atu hetan aprovasaun hafoin hetan aprovasaun hosi Konsellu Ministrus). Iha fulan Juñu 2009, Lei Eleitorál Lokál nian haruka ba Prezidente Horta atu promulga, no Prezidente konsidera vetu maibé ikusliu haruka lei ba Tribunál Rekursu atu konsidera konstitusionalidade hosi lei nia dispozisaun eleitorál sira. Iha dia 7 fulan Jullu, 2009, Tribunál deklara lei ne’e konstitusionál.

Programa desentralizasaun identifika objetivu mahuluk tolu. Ida dahuluk mak atu ‘promove instituisaun sira hosi estadu ne’ebé forte, lejítimu no estavel iha Timor-Leste nia territóriu tomak. Daruak mak atu promove ‘oportunidade sira ba partisipasaun lokál demokrátika hosi sidadaun hotu-hotu’; no datoluk mak atu promove ‘servisu públiku ne’ebé efetivu, efisiente liu no justu ba dezenvolvimentu sosiál no ekonómiku nasaun nian’.86 Kestaun operasionál xave kona-ba modelu foun ne’e mak nivel governu ida-ne’ebé mak sei hala’o funsaun sira-ne’e? ne’e asuntu ida ne’ebé kona-ba ‘delegasaun funsionál’, divizaun responsabilidade no funsaun nian entre governu nia nivel sira. Delegasaun ida klaru no adekuadu ba funsaun governamentál entre atór nasionál, munisipál no suku nian mak esensiál. Kuran klareza nian no apoiu inadekuadu no autonomia ba atór subnasionál sira sei hamosu konfuzaun, duplikasaun no desentralizasaun uitoan de’it ka laek ba prosesu foti desizaun no prestasaun servisu nian.

Iha lejizlasaun nia laran, desentralizasaun ne’e define hanesan polítika ida ne’ebé ‘hala’o atu transfere podér no responsabilidade hosi autoridade sentrál ba fali gabinete no funsionáriu subnasionál sira (rejionál no lokál)’.87 Modelu diferente desentralizasaun nian envolve nivel diferente kona-ba 82 David Hicks, ‘Centre and Periphery in Contemporary Timor-Leste’, paper delivered at the Nation-Building across Urban and Rural Timor-Leste, Gender, Peace, Security, Development and Governance, Dili, 8-10 July, 2009..

83 Banku Mundiál no Diresaun Nasionál Estatístika, Timor-Leste: Poverty in a Young Nation, Dili, Novembru, 2008, p.3. Katak maioria Timoroan sira hasoru padraun moris kiak liután hori loron independénsia halo asuntu korrupsaun nian sai hanesan fonte ba dezkontentamentu públiku ne’ebé sériu.

84 Lei tradisionál no adjudikasaun lokál ba disputa sira kontinua la’o no maski ne’e hafó asisténsia sosiál, lokalizasaun identidade nian iha mós ninia konsekuénsia. Violénsia iha komunidade nia leet iha tinan 2006-2007 hatudu katak identidade sosiál sei determina nafatin hosi lealdade lokál antigu duké afiliasaun ba komunidade nasionál.

85 Ministry of State Administration and Territorial Management, Decentralization and Local Government in Timor-Leste, Policy Orientation Guidelines for Decentralization and Local Government in Timor-Leste, Dili, March 2008.

86 ibid.

87 República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Law Proposal no. ---/08 as of August, Law on Local Government, Article 2, definition of terms. Modelu ne’e envolve de’it tranferénsia funsaun balu nian hosi sentru ba funsionáriu sira ne’ebé sei ligadu hela ba ministériu ka ajénsia sentrál sira. Modelu ne’e mesak la transfere direitu no responsabilidade ba asembleia munisipál ka xefe-suku no konsellu suku sira. Delegasaun envolve transferénsia ba pelumenus responsabilidade governamentál balu ba governu munisipál sira maibé iha Dili nia kontrole regulatóriu okos.

transferénsia tebes podér nian. Devolusaun katak forma desentralizasaun nian tuir ne’ebé podér no responsabilidade, iha área espesífiku polítiku no servisu nian, transfere ba governu lokál. Ne’e desentralizasaun polítika ka demokrátika tuir ne’ebé prosesu foti desizaun no kontrole ba orsamentu monu ba reprezentante lokál eleitu sira-nia liman.88 Iha kazu ne’e, asembleia munisipál sira hetan kompeténsia atu ‘aprova planu no orsamentu ba setór sira ne’ebé sira simu responsabilidade ba’.89 Saida mak buat ne’e sei signifika iha prátika sei depende ba detalle atu fó sai iha lei subsidiária sira ne’ebé mak sei presiza atu define munisípiu sira-nia papél.90 Buat ne’ebé planeia ona hanesan ‘desentralizasaun adaptada’—desizaun kona-ba asembleia munisipál nia papél sei haree tuir kazu ida-idak no bele varia karik hosi munisípiu ida ba munisípiu ida seluk. Kestaun xave mak kontrole ba orsamentu sira. Parese katak Munisípiu sira laiha autoridade atu kobra impostu, no sei dependente ba orsamentu ne’ebé fahe (no kontrola) hosi governu sentrál.91 Presiza hein atu haree grau autonomia idane’ebé mak ministériu sira, liuliu Ministériu Finansas, prontu atu fó ba munisípiu sira.





Harii Solidariedade Normativa?

To’o ne’ebé mak reforma sira-ne’e promove ‘solidariedade normativa’? Lei Eleitorál Munisipál, ne’ebé aprova tiha ona iha Konsellu Ministrus iha fulan Fevereiru 2009, estabelese sistema votasaun proporsionál ida no rekere kandidatu ba eleisaun sira tenke mosu iha lista partidu polítiku nian.92 Buat ne’e sei haka’it assembleia munisipál sira ho polítika partidária no sei introdús rivalidade polítika nasionál nian ba polítika munisipál. Lejizlasaun ne’e, la hanesan ho modelu ne’ebé propoin iha tinan 2008, hasai suku nia reprezentante sira hosi asembleia munisipál liuhosi eleisaun indireta.93 Programa reforma governu lokál nian hafó oportunidade ida importante tebetebes atu envolve TimorLeste nia povu iha governasaun demokrátika tuir dalan ida ne’ebé sira la hetan iha sistema estadu nian ne’ebé sentralizadu no frajil. To’o nivel ida signifikativu, maioria sidadaun sira la envolve an iha domíniu polítiku nasaun-estadu nian. Evidénsia hatudu katak ema barak hadook an hosi estadu, kestiona ninia lejitimidade, no buka sira-nia identidade iha domíniu lokál sira. Sistema foun ne’e sei implementa neineik liuhosi prosesu ‘desentralizasaun adaptada’ no ninia modelu finál seidauk klaru. Maibé, hamihis proposta modelu 2008 nian iha lejizlasaun foun no hatama polítika partidária nasionál ba prosesu eleitorál munisipál, buat ida be la fó enkorajamentu. Harii sala karik, munisípiu foun sira-ne’e hamosu risku atu sai dalas burokrasia ida tan ne’ebé la funsiona no mós hamoris polítika patronatu nian iha komunidade lokál sira; no bele hamosu elite rejionál foun ho polítiku sira ne’ebé iha potensiál ba korrupsaun iha munisípiu sira-nia laran.

88 Ne’e mak modelu ne’ebé propoin iha jerál iha Guia Orientasaun Polítika 2008 ba Timor-Leste. Mudansa ne’ebé halo ba proposta modelu ida-ne’e iha Lei Governu Lokál 2009 nian halo katak kompromisu ho devolusaun demokrátika ladún seguru.

89 República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Law Proposal no. ---/08 as of August, Law on Local Government, Article 8:a 90 Miguel de Carvalho, Diretór Diresaun Nasionál Governu Lokal no Jestaun Territoriál of the National Directorate of Local Government and Territorial Management, quoted in ‘Devolution or Delgation: Eight Ministries Discuss how to Transfer Function to Municipalities’, Local Governance Monthly Bulletin, vol. II, Edition III, March 2009.

91 Comments on the Draft Decentralization Laws of the Democratic Republic of Timor Leste, The Asia Foundation Timor Leste, prepared for The Committee A, National Parliament, 31 March, 2009.

92 Lei Eleitorál Munisipál (Municipal Election Law), Ezbosu, Konsellu Ministrus, 18 Fevereiru, 2009, Artigu 11, 12, 13.

Desizaun mak atu halo lista partidu closed, not open, hodi nega votante sira direitu atu hili sira-nia kandidatu individuál ne’ebé sira prefere. Lista partidu tenke inklui pelumenus feto ida ba kada kandidatu na’in-tolu.

93 Ne’e estabelese iha Guia ba Desentralizasaun no Governu Lokál iha Timor-Leste, 2.2.1, Marsu 2008. Lejislazaun ne’e hasai proposta direitu suku sira-nian atu hatama kestaun polítika nia ba asembleia munisipál sira.

Konflitu Sosiál sira no Étika Resiprosidade nian iha Timor-Leste94 Kelly Silva, Departamentu Antropolojia, Universidade de Brasília Introdusaun Ha’u nia objetivu iha testu ki’ik ida-ne’e mak atu analiza diskursu sira ne’ebé mak karateriza disputa polítika balu entre Timor nia elite sira hosi momentu restaurasaun independénsia, hodi identifika prinsípiu morál ida ne’ebé komún ba sira. Liuhosi Kelly Silva abordajem ba narrativa sira ne’ebé fó estrutura ba krize 2006 nia dimensaun sira, konfrontu entre governu Fretilin no Igreja Katólika iha 2005 no eleisaun prezidensiál iha 2007, ha’u sujere katak étika resiprosidade nian mak estruturante ba Timor nia kultura kontemporánea. Iha ekonomia morál ida hanesan ne’e, terus ne’e sai hanesan unidade valór nian fundamentál. Maizumenus, ha’u hanaran étika resiprosidade ba espetativa sira kona-ba konduta ne’ebé bazeia ba prinsípiu kona-ba retribuisaun nesesária ka kompensasaun ba servisu ka bens sira ne’ebé ajente hafó oioin hodi ne’ebé sosiedade ida harii ka restaura filafali nia an rasik.

Krize 2006 Análize oioin kona-ba krize 2006 nian hatudu ba kompleksidade kona-ba atór no implikasaun sira (Harrington 2007; Devant 2008;

Scambary 2009). Krize nia hun mai hosi istória rezisténsia Timor nian hasoru okupasaun Indonézia no disputa sira ne’ebé mosu hafoin hetan tiha independénsia nasionál, tantu iha domíniu polítika institusionalizada nian ka iha prátika sosiabilidade loroloron nian entre populasaun sira iha Dili. Ba objetivu análitiku sira ne’ebé propoin iha ne’e, ha’u sei haree ba diskursu rua ne’ebé ema konsidera hanesan fundamentál tanba ninia implikasaun: 1) diskursu ne’ebé petisionáriu sira hato’o, tuir ne’ebé sira sujere katak iha diskriminasaun iha F-FDTL nia leet; 2) diskursu hosi prezidente iha tempu ne’ebé Xanana Gusmão, iha fulan Juñu

2006. Importánsia hosi diskursu sira-ne’e mai hosi ninia kontúdo no mós hosi efeitu ne’ebé sira hamosu.

Parte hosi krize polítika 2006 nian mosu tanba protestu hosi maizumenus katoluk ida hosi forsa F-FDTL nian, ne’ebé forma hosi mane sira hosi orijen loromonu. Petisionáriu sira – naran ne’ebé tau ba sira a posteriori – hatete katak sira sai vítima diskriminasaun iha organizasaun nia laran tanba de’it sira-nia hun rejionál. Sira hatete 94 Ha’u hakarak ema atu haree testu ne’e hanesan rezumu ida ba argumentu sira ne’ebé esplora kle’an liu tiha ona iha artigu “Reciprocity, recognition and suffering: Political mobilizers in Independent East Timor”, ne’ebé publika ona iha númeru 5.2 iha Virtual Brazilian Anthropology no disponivel iha enderesu eletróniku: http://www.vibrant.org.br/downloads/v5n2_silva.pdf iha tempu ne’ebá katak sira-nia kolega no komandante superiór sira – hosi hun lorosa’e – hesuk katak loromonu sira la luta – la terus – ba independénsia hanesan lorosa’e sira, buat ida ne’ebé serve hanesan justifikasaun ba asesu restritu ba loromonu sira atu hetan promosaun iha sira-nia iha karreira. Reasaun públika dahuluk hosi prezidente ba sira-nia diskursu ne’e mak afirmasaun ida katak labele konsidera pasadu rezisténsia atu influensia dinámika iha organizasaun laran. Maski nune’e, narrativa barak ne’ebé ikuikus ema elabora atu tenta kontrola krize propoin katak engajamentu hosi populasaun sira hosi lorosa’e no loromonu iha rezisténsia hanesan de’it, tanba ne’e laiha no labele iha tratamentu deziguál ka la hanesan.

Hodi husik lai kestaun semellansa ba diskursu rua ne’e, importante atu nota katak iha narrativa sira-ne’e ne’ebé buka atu fó lejitimidade ba petisionáriu sira-nia ezijénsia no mós narrativa sira ne’ebé buka fó resposta, lójika resiprosidade nian impoin an. Hosi sorin petisionáriu sira-nian, étika resiprosidade nian mak fó sentidu ba alegada diskriminasaun ne’ebé halo sira sai vitima. Iha autoridade estadu sira-nia leet, sira nega katak iha diskriminasun hodi sujere tan katak laiha motivu ba diskriminasaun tanba, Timoroan hotuhotu, hosi lorosa’e to’o loromonu, fó sira-nia an ba rezisténsia ho maneira hanesan.

Tuirfali, iha loron 22 Juñu 2006 no hafoin hola petisionáriu sira-nia sorin, Xanana Gusmão ba televizaun no iha momentu ne’e halo diskursu ida maka’as. Nu’udar resposta ba rezultadu konferénsia Balbina ho Carmenesa Moniz Noronha ho relatoriu ‘Komprende Komunidade’ Fretilin nian ne’ebé restaura filafali lideransa Alkatiri ho ninia grupu nian, Xanana fó sai ba públiku eventu sira ne’ebé define marka rezisténsia nia istória. Nia hatete katak sira ne’ebé kontrola Fretilin foin mai hosi li’ur, no sira pasa tinan okupasaun nian hodi estuda iha Mosambike no sira interesadu liu atu hetan pozisaun komandu iha rezisténsia laran duké haree ba povu nia terus, kontrariu fali ho sira selu ne’ebé, hanesan mós nia, hela iha ai-laran. Nia mós duu lideransa Fretilin kona-ba deklarasun sira ne’ebé hatun maka’as dignidade setór balu populasaun nian, hodi klasifika sira hanesan supermie. Iha kontestu ida-ne’e, Xanana haktuir katak sira haree ba loromonu nia kuadru sira iha F-FDTL hanesan “milisia nia oan”.

Bainhira Xanana repete fali buat sira-ne’e iha ninia diskursu rasik, nia promove daudaun disiminasaun ba persesaun ida, ne’ebé ema esplora tiha ona iha tinan hirak liuba, katak sira ne’ebé ukun Pesoál RMIT hamutuk ho reprezentante komunidade governu tolok, ofende no falta respeitu ba povu. Katak sira la lansa relatoriu ‘Komprende Komunidade’ valoriza ho forma hanesan empeñu ne’ebé populasaun tomak fó ba rezisténsia hasoru okupasaun Indonézia, no sira hetan benefísiu rasik hosi sira-nia kondisaun nu’udar eziladu.

Esperiénsia ne’ebé ema sira iha pozisaun lideransa Fretilin hetan iha ezíliu, Xanana uza tiha hanesan mobilizadór polítiku atu hafraku fali sira. Esperiénsia ne’e simbolikamente nakfila tiha ba indikadór ida kona-ba previléjiu ilejitimu, tanba alegadamente laiha kontribuisaun ida hosi ema sira ne’e ba harii nasaun, liuhosi forma sakrifísiu no terus. Duun mós katak ema Fretilin sira ne’ebé filahikas hosi tasi-balun la fó rekoñesimentu loloos ba sakrifísiu populasaun tomak nian, no nia indikadór maka alegasaun kona-ba diskriminasaun pozitiva hosi kuadru lorosa’e sira iha F-FDTL. Étika resiprosidade nian maka fó estrutura ba disputa polítika sira-ne’e.

Liuhosi étika ne’e mak Xanana buka atu mobiliza apoiu atu hafraku Fretilin nia lideransa, buat ne’ebé la’ós justu tanba de’it razaun katak ema sira-ne’e la terus hanesan nia no ninia kompatriota sira terus.



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