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«Damian Grenfell, Mayra Walsh, Januario Soares, Sofie Anselmie, Annie Sloman, Victoria Stead no Anna Trembath ...»

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Aleinde advokasia iha nivel nasionál, OLG sira hahú aumenta sira-nia apoiu ba esforsu lokál atu hanoin-hetan no halo sentidu kona-ba violénsia pasadu nian, hanesan harii monumentu sira no komemorasaun ba masakre sira ne’ebé akontese iha tempu uluk. Iha distritu Likisá, membru komunidade lokál sira harii, ho tulun hosi OLG sira, monumentu ‘Anju’ ki’ikoan ida iha igreja Likisá nia kotuk atu komemora masakre ne’ebé milísia Besih Merah Putih halo ba ema na’in neenulu iha loron 6 fulan Abril, 1999, no agora selebra misa ida tinan-tinan iha fatin ne’e. Tinan kotuk, OLG sira tulun komunidade lokál iha Kraras, Vikeke atu komemora masakre tinan 1983 nian ba aldeia nia membru atus tolu ne’ebé mate; no foin daudaun hala’o inaugurasaun ba monumentu foun ida iha Ainaru atu komemora masakre Maununu.67 Valór hosi esforsu sira-ne’e katak promove komunidade lokál sira-nia tentativa rasik atu hanoin-hetan, lutu, no halo sentidu kona-ba violénsia pasadu nian tuir dalan ne’ebé la hanesan karik ho governu nia prioridade sira kona-ba harii nasaun ka organizasaun sosiedade sivíl sira-nia prioridade kona-ba advokasia. Forma koletiva no lokál hodi hanoin-hetan pasadu iha kapasidade atu habarani forma ligasaun entre ema indivíduu sira ne’ebé hasoru aat oioin, duké kompetisaun ho baze ba luta atu hetan rekursu sira. Biar iha mós polítika no luta ba podér rasik, iha nivel lokál mak rekonstrusaun moris loroloron nian no hahilas futuru koletivu ida akontese daudaun, liuhosi harii relasaun no ligasaun sosiál sira ne’ebé mak kotu durante okupasaun Indonézia, rekonstrusaun ba uma-lulik sira, hakoi ema sira ne’ebé mate durante konflitu, no hala’o serimónia hodi hakmatek matebian sira.68 Maski OLG sira hola tiha ona medidas balun atu harii movimentu justisa ida inkluzivu, sira bele halo liután hodi konsidera violénsia nia dimensaun estruturál no loroloron nian. OLG sira-nia advokasia ba nesesidade atu rekoñese ema indivíduu sira-nia esperiénsia kona-ba hahalok tortura, oho-ema, no estraga-feto nu’udar dalan ida importante tebetebes atu dezafia lideransa nia prioridade progresivu 65 Entrevista ho membru pesoál hosi ICTJ, Dili, Jullu 2008 66 Haree Lusa, Victims Congress in Dili: No Amnesty for Human Rights Crimes, 2 Setembru 2009.

67 Entrevista ho membru pesoál hosi Yayasan Hak, Dili, Jullu 2009 68 Veena Das, Life and Words: Violence and the Descent into the Ordinary, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2007.

Haree mós Anne Brown, ‘Security, Development and the Nation-Building Agenda: East Timor’, Conflict, Security and Development vol. 9, no. 2, 2009, pp. 141-64.

sira, maibé iha mós potensiál atu la haree natureza krónika no tempu naruk nian hosi terus ne’ebé akontese durante okupasaun Indonézia, no atu esklui esperiénsia barak kona-ba dezigualdade, pobreza no deznutrisaun ne’ebé ladún vizivel no ne’ebé Timoroan barak hasoru no kontinua hasoru nafatin. Porezemplu, ladún fó konsiderasaun natoon ba feto-faluk sira ne’ebé lakon sira-nia la’en ka oan durante okupasaun Indonézia tanba kuran ai-han ka ai-moruk, situasaun ida ne’ebé aat liután karik tanba governu Indonéziu nia polítika dezlokamentu forsadu. Ladún rekoñese mós frustrasaun hosi Timoroan barak ne’ebé sente katak konflitu nega edukasaun ida ba sira, hodi nune’e limita sira-nia kapasidade atu buka moris ida di’ak. Reflesaun kona-ba esperiénsia terus oioin no loroloron nian sira-ne’e iha potensiál atu hamosu ligasaun entre kampaña ba ‘justisa’ ba krime hosi pasadu no problema sira kona-ba injustisa sosiál ne’ebé la’o daudaubn no ne’ebé mai hosi okupasaun Indonézia. Porezemplu, bele halo ligasaun Treinamentu konferénsia iha Dare, June 2009 sira entre kampaña oras daudaun nian kona-ba kompensasaun ba vítima sira ho nesesidade ba edukasaun bázika no servisu saúde sira ne’ebé asesivel ba hotu-hotu, ne’ebé bele ajuda atu promove movimentu ba justisa ida inkluzivu liután ne’ebé enkoraja solidariedade entre vítima sira ho grupu desfavoresidu sira seluk.

Konkluzaun Liuhosi kontinua atu dada atensaun ba nesesidade atu rekoñese no rezolve terus pasadu nian, sosiedade sivíl Timor-Leste nia movimentu ba justisa hafó dezafiu importante ida ba governu nia diskursu kona-ba harii nasaun, ne’ebé ho sira-nia promosaun ba vizaun triunfante no progresivu, esklui tiha ‘ema baibain’ barak nia esperiénsia no istória. Advokasia ba tribunál kriminál internasionál ida atu julga sira ne’ebé responsavel ba krime hasoru Konferénsia ida ne’e mos inklui espozisaun arte (pinta no fotografia) husi Timor-Leste umanidade no krime funu nian sai sanak ida importante tebetebes hosi sosiedade sivíl nia servisu ba justisa durante tinan sanulu ikuikus, hamutuk ho foku resente ba kompensasaun ba vítima sira. Liuhosi halo reflesaun kona-ba sé nia lian mak sai aas liu iha kampaña advokasia sira, tau matan ba efeitu badaudan hosi forma violénsia loroloron nian ne’ebé ladún vizível, no fó apoiu ba inisiativa koletiva, nivel lokál nian, atu hanoin-hetan no halo sentidu ba pasadu, OLG sira iha kapasidade atu hametin movimentu justisa nian no promove vizaun kona-ba nasaun ida ne’ebé inkluzivu, transformadór no hosi ‘kraik ba leten’ (bottom-up).

Seguransa Alimentár iha Timor-Leste: Lisaun hosi Arkeolojia69 Nuno Vasco Oliveira70 Ohin loron Timor-Leste nia ekonomia depende liu ba prátika agrikultura subsisténsia nian ne’ebé envolve produtu ai-han hosi hun-fatin oioin. Surat ida-ne’e bazeia ba peskiza arkeolójika ne’ebé hala’o iha Timor-Leste iha períodu tinan 2004-2008 no hato’o katak tuir istória, komunidade sira depende liu ba diversidade agríkola duké ba ezkluzividade atu garante sira-nia seguransa Nuno Vasco Oliveira alimentár. Ai-han sira ne’ebé kuda barakliu ohin loron mak batar no ai-farina, ne’ebé mai hosi Ámerika tropikál no tama iha Timor ho kontaktu koloniál europeu dahuluk iha prinsípiu sékulu 16.





Ai-fuan no ai-musan barak hanesan ai-tali, nuu, ai-kiar, kulu no hedan hanesan mós tipu ai-abut oioin hanesan kuan, uhi, kumbili no talas, no ai-han tempu hamlaha nian hanesan ai-tali (akar) ema uza iha rai-laran tomak horikedas tinan rihun balu liubá karik. Hare, katak ai-han mahuluk ba Timoroan sira ohin loron, ema hamaus tiha dahuluk iha Ázia orientál no lori tama iha Timor iha tinan 4000 ikus maibé surat ne’e sujere katak hare ladún sai hanesan parte importante ida ba Timoroan sira-nia hahán molok kontaktu koloniál dahuluk.

Rejistu istóriku sira ne’ebé iha, hamutuk ho informasaun foun ne’ebé hetan hosi investigasaun arkeolójika sira ba períodu tinan 10.000 hahoin katak kleur ona Timor nia komunidade sira depende ba sistema agrikultura mista hanesan baze ba sira-nia prátika kuda-rai. Kolleita boot dahuluk iha sistema sira-ne’e mak ai-abut no ai-fuan sira, no koto lokál balu hosi tinan rihun 2 ikus nia laran. Sistema kolleita mista sira-ne’e tutan tan ho kasa. Molok hatama balada-hakiak sira hanesan fahi, asu no manu mai iha Timor, maizumenus iha tinan 3500 liubá, prátika kasa nian ne’e ladún di’ak no ema hetan de’it niki ho laho. Meti matafatuk mak importante liu karik tanba ne’eduni mak hetan restu matafatuk barak tebes iha fatin arkeolójiku hotu-hotu ne’ebé ke’e iha Timor laran, mezmu iha fatin sira hosi períodu okupasaun umana antigu liu hori tinan 40.000 liubá. Importante mós katak, biar ema europeu sira haree-hetan tiha ona hare iha Timor iha sékulu 16, maibé fatin arkeolójiku sira ne’ebé investiga laiha hare.

69 Haloken sira iha surat ne’e hasai hosi ha’u nia teze doutoramentu nian. Atu hatene barak liután haree iha http://palaeoworks.anu.edu.au/Nuno.html hodi bele hetan teze tomak ho lia-Inglés.

70 Nuno Vasco Oliveira arkeólogu ida. Oras daudaun nia servisu nu’udar asesór kona-ba jestaun patrimóniu kulturál iha Sekretariadu Kultura, Ministériu Edukasaun, Timor-Leste. Iha tinan 2008 nia kompleta ninia doutoramentu iha Australian Mational University, haree ba sistema preistóriku jestaun ai-horis nian iha Timor hosi perspetiva arkeo-botánika. Bele kontanta nia iha nuno.

oliveira@anu.edu.au Investigasaun ka peskiza ne’ebé hala’o iha Timor-Leste entre tinan 2004 no 2008 buka hetan filafali ai-horis nia restu motuk ne’ebé ke’e sai hosi fatin arkeolójiku sira iha rejiaun Baukau, Baguia no Lospalos nian. Halo tiha análize komparativa ida entre amostra arkeo-botánika ho materiál referénsia ohin loron nian (ai-horis restu) sira ne’ebé hili iha fatin sira-ne’e hafoin halo motuk tiha iha laboratóriu. Restu ai-horis motuk modernu no arkeo-botániku sira mantein hela karaterístika sira ne’ebé permite komparasaun konaba sira-nia morfolojia (forma jerál) no anatomia (maneira oinsá sélula sira organiza an). Komparasaun sira-ne’e permite foti konluzaun kona-ba ai-horis ne’ebé mak iha ka laiha, no oinsá komunidade umana sira uza ai-horis sira-ne’e. Hosi rezultadu interesante projetu

peskiza ida-ne’e nian, ha’u hakarak halosun buat sira tuirmai:

• Auzénsia hare nian ka sereál seluseluk hosi fatin arkeolójiku ne’ebé hala’o investigasaun ba, exetu delek (Job’s Tears) ne’ebé ema iha Timor uza hanesan kontas maibé la’ós hanesan ai-han ida;

• Prezensa koto nian hosi tinan rihun 2 liubá, inklui amostra posivel ai-diik dina/ai-diik fuik musan;

• Prezensa ai-fuan ai-musan oioin hosi tinan 10.000, no mós posivel ai-abut no talas hosi tinan 3000 liubá;

• Evidénsia kona-ba sunu rai beibeik, ne’ebé hatudu prátika sunu hodi kuda-rai karik iha fatin investigasaun ida iha Baukau (Bui Ceri Uatu, uma fatuk iha área Oso Ua, Uaisa, Kasido). Haloken ida-ne’e mosu hosi investigasaun fitolójika Nuno Vasco Oliveira nia eskavasaun iha Bui Ceri Uato Mane, besik Baucau ba amostra rai nian ne’ebé hasai hosi fatin sira Carol Lentfer ke’e.

Rezultadu sira-ne’e sujere katak, tuir istória, komunidade sira iha Timor-Leste horikedas uluk depende ba rekursu ai-horis oioin atu tutan sira-nia ai-han. Ne’e akontese tanba razaun balu, no razaun ida mak rejime pluviál ne’ebé la konsistente (refere ba períodu udan-boot resikliu); iha jerál bailoro naruk kuaze iha rai-laran tomak; no auzénsia balada-fuik boot no balada-hakiak to’o tempu relativamente resente. Auzénsia hare nian no sereál seluseluk hosi restu ai-horis motuk ne’ebé ke’e hetan sujere katak tuir istória, ai-han sira-ne’e ladún importante ba Timoroan sira-nia sistema kolleita mista, no biar ai-han sira-ne’e tama rai-laran antes kedas, ema hahú kuda barak de’it iha períodu hafoin kontaktu koloniál dahuluk. Defaktu, dadus foun sira sujere prátika kontínua kona-ba esplorasaun ai-horis nian durante tinan rihun balu lahó Hasai ahi-latun husi eskavasaun mudansa boot to’o tinan 500 liubá, hafoin kontaktu europeu dahuluk. Baibain buat ida ne’ebé relasiona ho agrikultura sereál nian no intensifikasaun produsaun ai-han nian, prátika sunu rai hodi hamoos rai ne’e buat antigu liután karik. Bainhira kompara rejistu fitolójiku ho rezultadu sira hosi restu ai-horis motuk iha Baukau, parese iha razaun atu sujere katak prátika sunu relasiona ho sistema agro-florestál no uzu ba rekursu floresta nian duké ho agrikultura sereál nian.

Ikusliu, buat ida ne’ebé investigasaun ne’e sujere katak pasadu bele fó lisaun importante ida ba ohin loron. Iha kontestu jerál ida ho bailoro naruk no rejime udan nian ne’ebé la konsistente, komunidade sira aprende horiuluk kedas atu prepara an ba tempu susar, baibain liuhosi diversifika sira-nia sistema jestaun ai-horis nian no hahán. Subsistuisaun kolleita mista nian ho sistema monokultura (kuda buat ida de’it), hanesan produsaun foos nian, kala tendénsia modernu ida ne’ebé Portugés sira hahú no dezenvolve liután durante okupasaun Indonézia foin lailais ne’e. Maski bele iha duni razaun atu hadi’ak produsaun foos nian iha Timor-Leste, rejistu arkeolójiku sira hatudu katak tuir tradisaun prátika kuda-rai sira bazeia ba diversidade duké ezkluzividade. Koñesimentu kuda-rai nian kona-ba sistema kolleita mista buat ida importante iha tempu uluk atu garante seguransa Rai-hamutuk ai-moris modern alimentár ba Timor nia umakain sira. Investimentu boot kona-ba dezenvolvimentu no importasaun sistema monokultura nian, inklui mós kolleita komersiál (cash-crop), hanesan risku ida hodi halakon koñesimentu kuda-rai nian ida-ne’e. Ne’e bele fatál bainhira ‘tempu susar’ sira mosu fali mai.

–  –  –

Programa Dezenvolvimentu Urbanu iha Timor-Leste João Soares Reis Pequinho, Forum Tau Matan Artigu ida-ne’e atu enfaze atensaun ba ligasaun entre dezenvolvimentu urbanu ho direitu ba uma.

Husi perspetiva Timor-Leste nian, buat rua ne’e iha interasaun ida ne’ebé interligadu iha konseitu dezenvolvimentu urbanu no moris di’ak komunidade urbana nian.

Iha Timor-Leste, dezastre ida mak programa dezenvolvimentu urbanu ko’alia hanesan linguajen polítika la’ós hanesan linguajen téknika. Timor-Leste seidauk iha polítika kona-ba planu urbanu, seidauk iha polítika kona-ba uma no seidauk iha planu-diretór. Nune’e maski diskute buat hirak ne’e maibé nunka to’o ba hetan nia objetivu. Objetivu nasaun ne’ebé hakerek iha konstituisaun (haree artigu 6) garante kona-ba justisa sosiál, promove dezenvolvimentu hanesan iha setór hotu-hotu no garante feto no mane atu iha oportunidade ne’ebé hanesan. Pontudevista Forum Tau Matan (FTM) katak estadu presiza kria polítika kona-ba uma, polítika kona-ba planu urbanu, kria planu-diretór, no seluk-seluk tan. Ida-ne´e importante hanesan governu iha dalan ida ho vizaun klaru atubele hakonu objetivu nasaun-nian balun. Ida-ne´e mós importante atu estadu hatene aloka orsamentu jerál estadu nian ba setór ne´ebé importante no prioritáriu.

Artigu ne’e mós atu enfaze katak situasaun uma iha Timor-Leste dezastre. Tanba saida? Liutiha restaurasaun independénsia 20 Maiu 2002, iha esforsu oin-oin husi komponente hotu, inklui komunidade internasionál hodi hadi’ak situasaun direitus umanus iha rai-laran. Maski nune’e, kondisaun moris populasaun nian jeralmente nafatin kiak. Kondisaun uma komunidade nian bele uza hanesan sasukat jerál atu deskreve katak dezenvolvimentu rurál iha Timor-Leste seidauk iha mudansa signifikante. Sector Investment Program (SIP) iha 2005 hatudu katak totál uma iha área urbana 58 porsentu de’it mak harii husi materiál permanente sira, 82 porsentu uma-kain iha área urbana iha Dili laiha asesu ba bee moos 24-oras, 24 porsentu uma urbana iha Dili laiha instalasaun sentina, no nune’e mós 40 porsentu uma iha distritu sira laiha asesu ba instalasaun sentina.71 Liutiha fó sai rezultadu Konsulta Populár 30 Agustu 1999, movimentu milísia pro-Indonézia harahun maizumenus uma 68,000 (ka 40 porsentu husi totál uma ne’ebé eziste iha tempu ne’ebá), husik hela ema barak moris iha uma-rahun ka mutuk, dokumentu no propriedade barak mak lakon.72 Uma mak parte dezenvolvimentu ida esensiál tebetebes atu garante dignidade umana ema ida-idak nian. Uma adekuadu la’ós de’it ko’alia kona-ba uma kakuluk, ai-riin no fundasaun. Uma esensiál atu ema moris ho saúde di’ak, satisfasaun psikolójika, privasidade umana, protesaun fízika no psikolójika, hala’o atividade sosiál sira ne’ebé habiit relasaun umana. Dezenvolvimentu ikusliu, uma mós konsidera hanesan iha funsaun ekonómika atu garante ema bele hala´o atividade komérsiu nian.

Krize 2006/2007 husik hela maizumenus ema nain 150 000 dezlokadu husi sira-nia hela-fatin, no uma 5,000 mak hetan sunu no aat husi konflitu ne’e.73 Governu responde tiha ona ba situasaun ne’e liuhusi fornese fundu rekuperasaun sosiál montante entre $500 to’o $4,500 kada uma ne’ebé rejista hanesan hetan estragus durante krize.74 Programa fundu rekuperasaun sosiál ne’e susesu lori filafali populasaun dezlokadu sira fila ba sira-nia hela-fatin. Maski nune’e, iha levantamentu keixa barak kona-ba fraude durante prosesu verifikasaun nian, liuliu kona-ba alegasaun korupsaun hatudu katak dezenvolvimentu rurál sei hasoru dezafiu oin-oin.

71 Minister of Planning and Finance, Overview of Sector Investment Programs, Timor-Leste April 2005.

72 ibid.

73 International Crisis Group, Timor-Leste’s Discplacement Crisis, Asia Report No. 148, 31 March 2008, p. 2.

74 ibid, p. 13.



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