WWW.SA.I-PDF.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, books, theses
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 8 |

«SO WE WILL A POPULATION-BASED SURVEY ON ATTITUDES NEVER FORGET ABOUT SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION AND THE EXTRAORDINARY CHAMBERS IN THE COURTS OF CAMBODIA ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

SO WE WILL A POPULATION-BASED

SURVEY ON ATTITUDES

NEVER FORGET ABOUT SOCIAL

RECONSTRUCTION

AND THE EXTRAORDINARY

CHAMBERS IN THE

COURTS OF CAMBODIA

JANUARY 2009

HUMAN RIGHTS CENTER PHUONG PHAM

PATRICK VINCK

University of California, Berkeley MYCHELLE BALTHAZARD SOKHOM HEAN ERIC STOVER The Human Rights Center, University of California, Berkeley and its Initiative for Vulnerable Populations conducted the survey and released the study findings in Phnom Penh, Cambodia on 21 January 2009. The report here has been re-printed with minor editing to the original text.

The INITIATIVE FOR VULNERAbLE POPULATIONS uses empirical research methods to give voice to survivors of mass violence and improve the capacity of local organizations to collect and analyze data about marginalized populations. The Initiative and its partners work to ensure that the needs of survivors are recognized and acted on by governments, UN agencies, and nongovernmental organizations.

The HUMAN RIGHTS CENTER promotes human rights and international justice worldwide and trains the next generation of human rights researchers and advocates. More information about our projects can be found at http://hrc.berkeley.edu This report was made possible by grants from the Open Society Institute (OSI), Open Society Justice Initiative (OSJI), and the German Development Service (DED), Civil Peace Service (ZFD). The information provided and views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent those of the funding agencies.

Cover art by Pamela Blotner JANUARY 2009

SO WE WILL A POPULATION-BASED

SURVEY ON ATTITUDES

NEVER FORGET ABOUT SOCIAL

RECONSTRUCTION

AND THE EXTRAORDINARY

CHAMBERS IN THE

COURTS OF CAMBODIA

PHUONG PHAM

PATRICK VINCK

MYCHELLE BALTHAZARD

SOKHOM HEAN ERIC STOVER TAbLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary

1. Introduction

2. Background

3. Demographics

4. Experience, Knowledge, and Attitudes Towards the Khmer Rouge Regime

Exposure to violence

Knowledge of the Khmer Rouge Regime and Truth Seeking

Attitudes Towards Former Members of the Khmer Rouge

Accountability

5. Perceptions of Justice

Perception of Justice and Conflict Resolution Mechanisms

Justice and Current Priorities

6. Perceptions and Attitudes about the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

Knowledge of the ECCC

Outreach and Media

Attitudes Towards the ECCC

Reparations

7. Conclusions and Recommendations

8. Authors and Acknowledgements

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report provides the findings of a nationwide, population-based survey conducted in Cambodia from 9 September to 1 October 2008. Teams of interviewers used a structured questionnaire to interview 1,000 Cambodians 18 years old or older. The primary objectives of the study were to • measure public awareness of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC);

• assess the desire for justice and reparations for crimes committed by the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979;

• determine the level of access Cambodians have had to the ECCC and the national criminal justice system; and • recommend ways in which the ECCC, the Cambodian government, civil society, and the international community can ensure that Cambodians become engaged participants in—and not merely auxiliaries to—the work of the court.

For the survey, researchers randomly selected 125 communes out of 1,621 using systematic random sampling proportionate to population size. At least one commune was then selected in each of the 24 provinces of Cambodia. Next, researchers randomly selected two villages from each commune, resulting in a sample of 250 villages. Within each village, four households were randomly selected using linear systematic sampling with equal probability of selection. Within each household, a Kish grid was used to select at random one household member to interview. Finally, researchers analyzed the data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Further information about the survey methodology and limitations is provided in the Introduction.

By the time of the survey, the ECCC had arrested and charged five former leaders of the Khmer Rouge. The first to be taken into custody, in July 2007, was Kaing Guek Eav (Duch), former head of the notorious Tuol Sleng prison (also known as S21). He was later charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes. By late 2007, four other suspects had been detained and charged with similar crimes: Ieng Sary, Deputy Prime Minister of Foreign Affairs of Democratic Kampuchea, the name given to Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge regime; Nuon Chea, known as “Brother Number Two” and second-in-command to the Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot; Khieu Samphan, President of Democratic Kampuchea; and Ieng Thirith, Minister of Social Affairs of Democratic Kampuchea. The first to stand trial will be Kaing Guek Eav and proceedings are expected to begin in February-March 2009.





–  –  –

KNOWLEdGE OF ThE KhmER ROuGE Nearly thirty years after the end of the Khmer Rouge regime, two-thirds of the population of Cambodia never directly experienced the violence and abuses of that period: 68 percent of the population is 29 years old or younger. Eight-one percent of respondents in our survey who did not live under the Khmer Rouge regime described their knowledge of that period as poor or very poor.

Most (84%) said their main source of information about the Khmer Rouge was from families and friends, while only 6 percent said they acquired it in school. Seventy-seven percent of all respondents said they wanted to know more about what had happened during the Khmer Rouge regime, while 85 percent of those who did not live under the regime wanted to learn more.

A Population-Based Survey on Attitudes about Social Reconstruction and the Extraordinary Chambers In the Courts of Cambodia LIVING WITh FORmER mEmbERS OF ThE KhmER ROuGE The vast majority of respondents said they still harbored feelings of hatred towards those Khmer Rouge members responsible for violent acts. Seventy-one percent said they wanted to see the Khmer Rouge suffer in some way. A third said they wished they could take revenge (37%) against former Khmer Rouge and that they would do so if they had the opportunity (40%). Forty-seven percent said they were uncomfortable living in the same community with former Khmer Rouge members. However, one-third of respondents (36%) said they had forgiven the Khmer Rouge. Feelings of hatred were more frequent among those who lived under the Khmer Rouge regime compared to those who did not. Likewise, forgiveness was less frequent among those who lived under the Khmer Rouge regime compared to those who did not.

accOuNTabILITy

Nine out of ten respondents in our survey said that members of the Khmer Rouge should be held accountable for the crimes they committed. When asked to specify who should be held accountable, half (51%) mentioned Khmer Rouge leaders or officials, and 20 percent mentioned the Khmer Rouge regime in general. One-quarter (24%) identified Pol Pot, the deceased Khmer Rouge leader, while 11 percent mentioned one or more of the five Khmer Rouge leaders currently in custody. Forty-nine percent of respondents said Khmer Rouge who committed crimes should be tried in a court of law.

When asked who should be in charge of holding these individuals accountable, respondents said the current Cambodian government (58%), the international community (18%), the national judicial system (17%), and the ECCC (9%).

ExTRaORdINaRy chambERS IN ThE cOuRTS OF cambOdIa

• Knowledge of the ECCC. Thirty-nine percent of the respondents in our survey had no knowledge of the ECCC, and nearly half (46%) had only limited knowledge. Among those who had some level of knowledge about the ECCC, 53 percent adequately described it as a hybrid court comprising national and international judges and staff. However, 82 percent of these respondents were unable to name all five accused currently awaiting trial. Of those who had heard about the ECCC the main sources of information were radio (80%) and television (44%). Twenty-eight percent of these respondents reported having seen specific TV programs about the ECCC, most frequently news reports (45%) and soap operas (16%). The vast majority (98%) said they would watch the ECCC proceedings if they were broadcasted live on TV. Finally, less than 1 percent of those respondents who had lived under the Khmer Rouge regime had participated in an outreach activity related to the ECCC over the twelve-month period prior to the survey.

• Perceptions and Expectations of the ECCC. In general, those respondents who were aware of the ECCC gave it very high marks. Eighty-seven percent said the court would respond to the crimes committed by the Khmer Rouge. About two-thirds (67%) believed the ECCC judges would be fair and the court was neutral. Sixty-eight percent believed the ECCC would have a positive effect on the victims of the Khmer Rouge and their families. However, there was ambiguity among some

3 SO WE WILL NEVER FORGET

respondents about the court’s objectivity and integrity. One-third said the court was not neutral and, among them, 23 percent felt it was corrupt. Respondents had high expectations of the ECCC.

Of those respondents who had “a little knowledge” of the ECCC, 26 percent said the court would bring justice and 20 percent said the court would punish the guilty. However, 37 percent did not know what the ECCC would accomplish.

• Recommendations to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. Respondents who had at least some knowledge of the court were given the opportunity to make one recommendation to the ECCC. Consistent with their perceptions and expectations, respondents wanted the court to speed up the trials (30%) and for it to be fair and independent (22%).

Seventeen percent said they did not know what to recommend to the court.

• Reparations. ECCC judges have the authority to rule that reparations of a collective, symbolic, and moral—but not financial—nature be provided to certain groups of victims (i.e., civil parties).

Such reparations could include erecting statues, building memorials, renaming public facilities, establishing days of remembrance, expunging criminal records, issuing declarations of death, exhuming bodies, and conducting reburials. The vast majority of our respondents (88%) said reparations should be provided to victims of the Khmer Rouge, and that they should be provided to the community as a whole (68%). Over half (53%) said reparations should be in a form that affects the daily lives of Cambodians, including social services (20%), infrastructure development (15%), economic development programs (12%), housing and land (5%), and provision of livestock, food, and agriculture tools (1%).

NaTIONaL cRImINaL JuSTIcE SySTEm

Respondents showed little confidence in the national criminal justice system. Only 36 percent said they trusted it, and a slightly higher number (37%) said they trusted Cambodian judges. Less than half of respondents (44%) agreed with the proposition that Cambodian justice is for everyone, or that Cambodian judges treat everyone equally (40%). Eighty-two percent said going to court was too expensive and required bribing judges (82%) or the police (77%).

Key recommendations to emerge from our findings are as follows:

TO THE EXTRAORDINARY CHAMbERS IN THE COURTS OF CAMbODIA

• Deal immediately and effectively with allegations of corruption and lack of transparency at the ECCC. Among Cambodians who are knowledgeable of the ECCC, there is strong support for its work. Survey respondents expressed high expectations that the court will be fair and independent.

This is good news for the ECCC, but it could easily erode if allegations of corruption continue.

Respondents showed little confidence in the national criminal justice system because of corruption and a lack of trust in court officials. The ECCC should not succumb to the same fate. Moreover, the court should ensure that trials are transparent and conducted in a timely fashion.

A Population-Based Survey on Attitudes about Social Reconstruction and the Extraordinary Chambers In the Courts of Cambodia • Greatly expand and improve the outreach efforts of the ECCC. Knowledge of the ECCC nationwide should be much higher at this point in time, given that it became operational in 2006. Less than 1 percent of those who lived under the Khmer Rouge (four individuals) had participated in an ECCC-related outreach activity during the 12 months prior to the survey. Public service announcements about the court should be broadcast on radio and television. Interviews with court judges and staff should be commonplace during the trials to help explain complicated legal and judicial concepts to the public. Finally, a weekly summary of trial proceedings—preferably in a talk show format that encourages debate—should be aired on both radio and television.

• Appoint a staff member to serve as an “educational liaison officer” to donors, nongovernmental organizations, and the Cambodian government. The ECCC’s primary obligation, as with all courts, is to hold fair and public trials. That said, the court is in a unique position to act as a catalyst for educational programs that will connect the court’s activities to Cambodian history. Cambodia’s school system has failed to educate young people about the crimes of the Khmer Rouge. Working together, the ECCC, donors, nongovernmental organizations, and Ministry of Education should use this unprecedented opportunity to create curricular modules combining historical texts and visual materials from the forthcoming trials for use in primary and secondary schools. These educational products could also serve as part of the court’s legacy.

• Recognize that the vast majority of Cambodians view themselves as direct or indirect victims of the Khmer Rouge and desire some form of collective and symbolic reparations. Why this is a pressing issue for the ECCC is reflected in the finding that most respondents said it was more important for the country to focus on problems Cambodians face in their daily lives than the crimes committed by the Khmer Rouge. This suggests that the ECCC must find ways to ground its activities in the current concerns and needs of the population. Providing reparations—especially those aimed at providing social services and infrastructure development—could help meet this need.

TO DONORS AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

• Find ways to help the ECCC better inform Cambodians about its mandate and activities. Donors and nongovernmental organizations have played a critical role in supporting the ECCC on many levels, including outreach and training. Yet the data suggests most Cambodians are not aware of the court or know very little about its mandate and procedures. It also appears that outreach efforts have not been well coordinated. A centralized process with clear guidelines and goals could help remedy this situation.

• Continue to provide support to the ECCC in defining what reparations will work in the Cambodian context. As noted earlier, Cambodians favor especially those reparations that affect their daily lives.

One workshop has already been convened in late November 2007 focusing on the history of reparations following mass violence and reparations that have worked in post-war settings.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 8 |


Similar works:

«The Confederate Peace Resolutions and Negotiations of 1864 – 1865 by Jack L. Dickinson, CMH Rosanna Blake Confederate Collection Marshall University Special Collections Dept. November, 2010 INTRODUCTION As the American Civil War of 1861 – 1865 ground on into 1864 there was continuing pressure within both the North and the South to negotiate some kind of peace settlement. There were factions within both governments that were adamant that peace negotiations should be pursued at any cost....»

«Laboratory Test Procedure for Dynamic Rollover The Fishhook Maneuver Test Procedure New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) MARCH 2013 U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE Washington, DC 20590 -1 LABORATORY TEST PROCEDURE TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 1.2 Rollover Resistance Requirements of the TREAD Act 1.3 Recent NHTSA Light Vehicle Dynamic Rollover Propensity Research. 4 2.0 TEST EQUIPMENT 2.1 Vehicle Load...»

«THE FUTURE OF DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT: An On-going Discussion Allan Lavell and Andrew Maskrey Based on the contributions of Johara Bellali, Stephen Bender, Alonso Brenes, Pascal Girot, Michelle Gyles-McDonnough, Ilan Kelman, Kamal Kishore, Christopher Lavell, Franklin McDonald, Alvaro Montero, Richard Olson, Mark Pelling, Aromar Revi, Lilian Reyes, Sahar Safaie, Juan Pablo Sarmiento, Marco ToscanoRivalta, David Smith-Wiltshire, Gustavo Wilches-Chaux. Background On the 18th and 19th April 2013,...»

«FOR PUBLICATION UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT CLARENCE EUGENE JONES, No. 12-35131 Plaintiff-Appellant, D.C. No. v. 6:09-cv-00029TC MAX WILLIAMS, in his official and individual capacity as Corrections Director for the Oregon Department OPINION of Corrections; COLLETTE PETERS, in her official capacity and individual capacity as Inspector General of Oregon Department of Corrections; TIM O’CONNORS, in his official capacity and individual capacity as Administrator of...»

«A Theory-Based Meta-Analysis of Research on Instruction by Robert J. Marzano Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory Aurora, Colorado 2550 S. Parker Road, Suite 500 Aurora, Colorado 80014 (303)337-0990 (303)337-3005 Fax December 1998 This publication is based on work sponsored wholly, or in part, by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Department of Education, under Contract Number RJ96006101. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views of OERI or...»

«Plano de Desenvolvimento e Investimento da Rede de Transporte de Electricidade PDIRT 2012-2017 (2022) Relatório da Consulta Pública do Plano e respectiva Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica REN Rede Eléctrica Nacional, S.A. Julho 2011 PDIRT 2012 -2017 (2022) Relatório da Consulta Pública do PDIRT e respectiva AAE| Julho de 2011 PDIRT 2012 -2017 (2022) Ficha técnica Coordenação Geral Maria do Rosário Partidário Apoio à Coordenação Bernardo Rodrigues Augusto David Lucas Nunes Sofia...»

«Running Head: Analyzing A Novel Expertise Analyzing a Novel Expertise: An Unmarked Road Wayne D. Gray George Mason University & Susan S. Kirschenbaum Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport Gray, W. D., & Kirschenbaum, S. S. (in press). Analyzing a novel expertise: An unmarked road. In J. M. C. Schraagen, S. F. Chipman, & V. L. Shalin (Eds.), Cognitive task analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Please send all correspondence to: Wayne D. Gray George Mason University MSN 3f5 Fairfax, VA 22030...»

«The Market Value of Corporate Votes: Theory and Evidence from Option Prices Avner Kalay, Oˇuzhan Karaka¸, and Shagun Pant∗ g s January 2011 ABSTRACT This paper quantifies the market value of the right to vote as the difference in the prices of the stock and the corresponding synthetic stock. Votes are found to have positive value that increases in the time to expiration of the options used to construct the synthetic stocks. Consistent with the theory, the value of vote increases around...»

«MEMBERS OF TURKISH DELEGATION TO TURKEY –EU JOINT PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE Updated: 09.09.2009 MEMBERS OF TURKISH DELEGATION TO TURKEY-EU JOINT PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE Members Party Constituency Mr. Yaşar YAKIŞ Co-Chairman AK Parti (JDP) Düzce Mr. Lütfi ELVAN Vice Co-Chairman AK Parti (JDP) Karaman Mr. Onur ÖYMEN Vice Co-Chairman CHP (RPP) Bursa Ms. Fazilet DAĞCI ÇIĞLIK Vice Co-Chairman AK Parti(JDP) Erzurum Mr. Osman ÇAKIR Vice Co-Chairman MHP (NMP) Samsun Mr. Burhan KAYATÜRK Member...»

«Consensus or Conflict? Experiences with Local Agenda 21 Forums Paper to ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Turin, 22-27. March 2002, Workshop 6, Institutional Innovation in Local Democracy Version 04.03.02 Kjell A. Harvold NIBR (Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research) P.b. 44 Blindern N-0313 Oslo Norway + 22 95 89 74 (tel) + 22 60 77 74 (fax) kjell.harvold@nibr.no Introduction It has been argued that there is a potential for a more successful management of sustainable development at...»

«‘Difference in Itself’: Validating Disabled People’s Lived Experience JAMES OVERBOE Massumi (1993: 23) argues that each person has a limited range of characteristics that he or she broadcasts through his or her body which then is either visually or aurally received by others. These aural or visual images are filtered through the receiver’s preconceived categories of identity. Thus the body is a medium that helps people define each other’s identity. I believe that these preconceived...»

«Text Production and Dynamic Text Semantics. In E. Ventola, Ed. Functional and Systemic Linguistics: Approaches and Uses. [pp. 23-38]. Berlin: Mouton/deGruyter (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 55). 1991. TEXT PRODUCTION AND DYNAMIC TEXT SEMANTICS Jay L. Lemke 1. Texture and semantic choice When we imagine writing on a blank sheet of paper, it seems to us that all the semantic choices of the language system are initially available to us. With no further information about the context...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.sa.i-pdf.info - Abstracts, books, theses

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.