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«EASY ATTRACTIVE TIMELY SOCIAL EAST Four simple ways to apply behavioural insights Owain Service, Michael Hallsworth, David Halpern, Felicity Algate, Rory ...»

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BIT intends to be at the forefront of these developments. In February 2014, we established BIT as a social purpose company that will continue to fulfil our existing mission of advancing the public good. For more information, visit www.behaviouralinsights.co.uk

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Dolan, P., Hallsworth, M., Halpern, D., King, D., & Vlaev, I. (2010). “MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy” Institute for Government and Cabinet Office.

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For a guide to running randomised controlled trials to test the efficacy of new interventions, see Behavioural Insights Team (2012). “Test, Learn, Adapt: Developing Public Policy Using Randomised Controlled Trials” Cabinet Office.

Madrian, B. C. & Shea, D. F. (2001). The power of suggestion: Inertia in 401(k) participation and savings behavior.

The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(4), 1149-1187. Choi, J. J., Laibson, D., Madrian, B. C. & Metrick, A. (2004).

Employees’ investment decisions about company stock. NBER Working Paper No. 10228. Choi, J. J., Laibson, D., Madrian, B. C. & Metrick, A. (2004). For better or for worse: Default effects and 401(k) savings behavior. NBER

Working Paper No. 8651. Choi, J. J., Laibson, D., Madrian, B. C. & Metrick, A. (2002). Defined contribution pensions:

Plan rules, participant decisions, and the path of least resistance. NBER Working Paper No. 8655. Beshears, J., Choi, J. J., Laibson, D., Madrian, B. C. (2009). The importance of default options for retirement saving outcomes: Evidence from the United States. NBER Working Paper No. 12009.

HMG (2013). Automatic enrolment opt out rates: findings from research with large employers.

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/227039/opt-out-research-largeemployers-ad_hoc.pdf Hawton, K., Bergen, H., Simkin, S., Dodd, S., Pocock, P., Bernal, W. & Kapur, N. (2013). Long term effect of reduced pack sizes of paracetamol on poisoning deaths and liver transplant activity in England and Wales: interrupted time series analyses. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 346(403).

Bettinger, E. P., Long, B. T., Oreopoulos, P. & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2012). The role of application assistance and information in college decisions: Results from the H&R block FAFSA experiment, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 127(3), 1205-1242.

Jack, B. W., Chetty, V. K., Anthony, D., Greenwald, J. L., Sanchez, G. M., Johnson, A. E., … & Culpepper, L. (2009).

A reengineered hospital discharge program to decrease rehospitalization: A randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 150(3), 178-187; Berkowitz, R. E., Fang, Z., Helfand, B. K., Jones, R. N., Schreiber, R., & Paasche-Orlow, M. K. (2013). Project ReEngineered Discharge (RED) lowers hospital readmissions of patients discharged from a skilled nursing facility. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(10), 736-740.

Gigerenzer, G. (2008). Gut feelings: Short cuts to better decision making. London: Penguin Group.

Gobet, F., Lane, P., Croker, S., Cheng, P., Jones, G., Oliver, I. & Pine, J. (2001). Chunking mechanisms in human learning. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 5(6), 236-243.

Dolan, P., Hallsworth, M., Halpern, D., King, D., & Vlaev, I. (2010). “MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy” Institute for Government and Cabinet Office Irish Revenue (2013). “Survey of Small and Medium Sized Business Customers” http://www.revenue.ie/en/about/ publications/business-survey-2013.pdf Mehta, R., & Zhu, R. J. (2009). Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Science, 323(5918), 1226-1229.

Behavioural Insights Team (2012). “Applying Behavioural Insights to Reduce Fraud, Debt and Error” Cabinet Office See, for example, Modernising Government Secretariat (1999). “Modernising Government”; Cabinet Office (2008) “Excellence and Fairness: Achieving World Class Public Services”; “Modern Public Service”, speech by David Cameron 17 January 2011 at: https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/prime-ministers-speech-on-modern-public-service Some argue that this happens within the first year of life. See Newman, R.S. (2005). The cocktail party effect in infants revisited: Listening to one’s name in noise. Developmental Psychology, 41(2), 352–362.

Behavioural Insights Team (2013). “Applying Behavioural Insights to Charitable Giving” Cabinet Office Bryan, C. J., Walton, G. M., Rogers, T., & Dweck, C. S. (2011). Motivating voter turnout by invoking the self.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(31), 12653-12656.

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Conrad, F. & Schober, M., Annual Meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, 2012.

http://ns.umich.edu/new/releases/20394-omg-texting-ups-truthfulness-new-iphone-study-suggests Frey, B. S. & Oberholzer-Gee, F. (1997). The cost of price incentives: An empirical analysis of motivation crowding-out.

The American economic review, 87(4), 746-755.

Luca, M. (2011). Reviews, Reputation, and Revenue: The Case of Yelp.com. Working Paper 12-016.

Elster, J. (1989). Social norms and economic theory. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3(4), 99-117.

Schultz, P. W., Nolan, J. M., Cialdini, R. B., Goldstein, N. J. & Griskevicius, V. (2007). The constructive, deconstructive and reconstructive power of social norms. Psychological Science, 18(5), 429-434.





Hallsworth, M., List, J. A., Metcalfe, R. D. & Vlaev, I. (2014). The behavioralist as tax collector.

NBER Working Paper no. 20007.

Allcott, H. (2011). Social Norms and Energy Conservation. Journal of Public Economics, 95(9-10), 1082-1095. Ayers, I. (2009). Evidence from two large field experiments that peer comparison feedback can reduce residential energy usage. Working Paper No. 15386. Cooney, K. (2011). Evaluation Report: Opower SMUD Pilot, Year 2.

Hallsworth, M., List, J. A., Metcalfe, R. D. & Vlaev, I. (2014). The behavioralist as tax collector.

NBER Working Paper no. 20007.

Behavioural Insights Team (2013). “Applying Behavioural Insights to Charitable Giving” Cabinet Office.

Cialdini, R. B. (2003). Crafting normative messages to protect the environment. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(4), 105-109.

Axelrod, R. (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books. Halpern, D. (2005). Social capital.

Luca, M. (2011). Reviews, Reputation, and Revenue: The Case of Yelp.com. Working Paper No. 12-016.

http://care4care.org/ Nickerson, D.W. (2008). Is voting contagious? Evidence from two field experiments. American Political Science Review 102(1), 49–57.

Behavioural Insights Team, Department of Health, Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency & NHS Blood and Transplant (2013). “Applying Behavioural Insights to Organ Donation” Cabinet Office Office for National Statistics (2008/09). “Opinions Survey Report No. 40. Smoking-related Behaviour and Attitudes” Ashraf, N., Karlan, D. & Yin, W. (2006). Tying Odysseus to the mast: Evidence from a commitment savings product in the Philippines. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 121(2), 635-672.

Thompson, S., Michaelson, J., Abdallah, S., Johnson, V., Morris, D., Riley, K., & Simms, A. (2011). ‘Moments of change’ as opportunities for influencing behaviour: A report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Defra, London.

Dolan, P., Hallsworth, M., Halpern, D., King, D., & Vlaev, I. (2010). “MINDSPACE: Influencing behaviour through public policy” Institute for Government and Cabinet Office Deaton, A. (2012). The financial crisis and the well-being of Americans: OEP Hicks Lecture. Oxford Economic Papers, 64(1), 1-26.

Judah, G., Aunger, R., Schmidt, W.-P., Michie, S., Granger, S. & Curtis, V. (2009). Experimental pretesting of handwashing interventions in a natural setting. American Journal of Public Health, 99(S2), S405–S411.

Behavioural Insights Team (2012). “Applying Behavioural Insights to Reduce Fraud, Debt and Error” Cabinet Office.

Haynes, L., Green, D. P., Gallagher, R., John., O. & Torgerson, D.J. (2013). Collection of delinquent fines: An adaptive randomized trial to access the effectiveness of alternative text messages.

The ‘no text’ condition was not included in the second trial. The average figures presented here include zero values.

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For an interesting summary of some of the theoretical evidence relating to behaviour change relating to life moments and exogenous shocks, see: Thompson, S., Michaelson, J., Abdallah, S., Johnson, V., Morris, D., Riley, K., & Simms, A.

(2011). ‘Moments of change’ as opportunities for influencing behaviour: A report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Defra, London.

Shu, L. L., Mazar, N., Gino, F., Ariely, D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2012). Signing at the beginning makes ethics salient and decreases dishonest self-reports in comparison to signing at the end. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(38), 15197-15200.

Zauberman, G., Kim, B. K., Malkoc, S. A. & Bettman, J. R. (2009). Discounting time and time discounting: Subjective time perception and intertemporal preferences. Journal of Marketing Research 46(4), 543-556.

Benartzi, S. (2012). Save more tomorrow. London: Penguin Books.

http://www.greenudge.no/en/media/bedre-informasjon-gir-miljbevisste-kunder/ Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey.” American psychologist, 57(9), 705.

Webb, T. L. & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249-268.

Milkman, K. L., Beshears, J., Choi, J. J., Laibson, D. & Madrian, B. C. (2011). Using implementation intentions prompts to enhance influenza vaccination rates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108(26), Sciences. 108(26), 10415–10420.

Milkman, K. L., Beshears, J., Choi, J. J., Laibson, D. & Madrian, B. C. (2012). Following through on good intentions:

The power of Planning Prompts. Working Paper No. 17995.

There is now much evidence that this approach, called “implementation intentions”, works across many different types of behaviour: it has helped people exercise more, reduce snacking, and persist with tasks. Gollwitzer, P. M.

& Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta‐analysis of effects and processes.

Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119.

Implementation intentions have been shown to increase the healthiness of eating. Verplanken, B. & Faes, S. (1999).

Good intentions, bad habits, and effects of forming implementation intentions on healthy eating. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29(5‐6), 591-604.

Data taken from https://catalogue.ic.nhs.uk/publications/public-health/surveys/heal-surv-phys-acti-fitneng-2008/heal-surv-phys-acti-fitn-eng-2008-rep-v1.pdf Rhodes, R. E. & Bruijn, G. J. (2013). How big is the physical activity intention–behaviour gap? A meta‐analysis using the action control framework. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18(2), 296-309.

Hall, S., Leary, K. & Branson, C. (2012). Qualitative research to explore tax credits customers’ renewal behaviour.

IPSOS Mori Social Research Institute. At: http:/ /www.hmrc.gov.uk/research/report186.pdf Behavioural Insights Team (2012). “Applying Behavioural Insights to Reduce Fraud, Debt and Error” Cabinet Office Shelton, J. N., Richeson, J. A. & Dovidio, J. F. (2013). Biases in interracial interactions. In E. Shafir (Ed.), The behavioural foundations of public policy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Blake, J. (1999). Overcoming the ‘value‐action gap’ in environmental policy: Tensions between national policy and local experience. Local Environment, 4(3), 257-278.

Bason, C. (2010). Leading public sector innovation. Policy Press.

The Civil Service Reform Plan, Cabinet Office, June 2012. The Plan states: To ensure that civil servants are well equipped to use new policy tools, and in line with the commitment to learning and development laid out later in the plan, all policy makers will be expected to undertake at least five days a year of continuing professional development to ensure they have the right skills, including in new areas such as behavioural sciences.

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