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«LONDONWEST MIDLANDS ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT Volume 2 | Community Forum Area report CFA7 | Colne Valley November 2013 ES 3.2.1.7 VOL LondonWest Midlands ...»

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7.4.60 Terrestrial invertebrates associated with dead-wood will not be significantly affected.

However, the translocation of soils, plants and dead wood material from woodland that will be lost, to the Tilehouse Lane woodland and the Harvil Road woodland creation areas will encourage the establishment of new invertebrate populations within the compensation woodland.

7.4.61 Although no significant impacts on the conservation status of any bat species or

assemblages are expected, the following measures will address any effects:

 woodland and wetland creation as previously described will compensate for loss of bat foraging habitat in the Mid Colne Valley SSSI, south of Moorhall Road;

 access between important foraging sites and roosts will be maintained in accordance with the principles of mitigation (Volume 5: Appendix CT-001 to mitigate for the removal of bat roosts in bat boxes and trees, new bat roosting will be created in the land required for construction of the Proposed Scheme as set out in the principles of mitigation (Volume 5: Appendix CT-001and  although no significant impact is expected for the bat assemblage around Little Halings Wood, the Tilehouse Lane linear planting area will provide a feature for bats to use as a safe flight line connecting to habitats on the other side of the A412 Denham Way/North Orbital Road.

7.4.62 Although there will be no significant impact on the conservation status of badger, mitigation measures to address the potential killing, injury and disturbance of badgers will be provided in accordance with the principles of mitigation (Volume 5: Appendix CT-001-000/2). This will include the provision of replacement setts for those lost.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Ecology

Summary of likely residual significant effects 7.4.63 The mitigation, compensation and enhancement measures described reduce the

effects to a level that is not significant except for the following receptors:

 in the Mid Colne Valley approximately 1ha of ancient woodland will be lost and cannot be replaced that will be significant;

 one of the two locations used by pochard for breeding in this area will be lost, resulting in a temporary adverse effect on the population; and  corn bunting habitat will be lost from farmland between the M25 and the A412 Denham Way/North Orbital Road, resulting in a permanent adverse effect on the population.

Effects arising from operation 7.5 Avoidance and mitigation measures 7.5.1 The following measure has been included as part of the design of the Proposed Scheme and avoid or reduce impacts on features of ecological value. Noise fence barriers will be constructed along the Proposed Scheme where it is close to retained woodland in the Mid Colne Valley SSSI, reducing noise and visual disturbance to sensitive woodland and wetland birds.

Assessment of impacts and effects 7.5.2 Where the route of the Proposed Scheme bisects or is located in close proximity to existing features known to be utilised regularly by foraging or commuting bats, there is an increased risk that bats could be killed or injured as a result of collisions with passing trains or associated turbulence. The significance of any such effect will be dependent on both the flight habit of the species or species concerned and the vertical alignment of the Proposed Scheme.

7.5.3 The Colne Valley viaduct will cross habitats used by foraging and commuting bats, including noctule bat, a species which commonly flies above tree level. However, the height of the viaduct will not obstruct flight lines for most species and the risk to noctules is low. Noctules avoid cluttered environments as they are large bats with a poor ability to manoeuvre. They will therefore avoid the catenary infrastructure, rather than fly within or through it. The noise fence barriers along the majority of the viaduct, as it crosses the River Colne valley, will further reduce the risk of collision.

Although it is possible that there may be infrequent incidental mortality, this is unlikely to result in a significant adverse effect on the conservation status of noctule.

7.5.4 The noise made by passing trains has the potential to disturb birds within habitats close to the Proposed Scheme. Birds habituate to loud noises that they hear regularly and frequently and hence it is considered that this will not generally cause significant effects. There is some evidence to suggest that breeding bird densities can be reduced where there is persistent noise from busy roads due to birds being unable to hear each other’s songs. However, this is not expected to occur with the Proposed Scheme as trains will pass quickly. The effect of train noise on breeding birds is, therefore, not considered to be significant.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Ecology

7.5.5 The majority of bird species known to be present in the area are not considered to be particularly vulnerable to collision with trains. Large birds such as cormorants and geese are vulnerable to collision with overhead power lines and other aerial structures, however, vantage point surveys did not identify any important flight lines for any such species. Most birds will be able to see the structure given the height of the parapet and the noise fence barriers and avoid it. A small risk of infrequent collision will remain but this will not be significant to the conservation status of locally present bird species, particularly wintering waterfowl.





7.5.6 It is considered unlikely that any other effects on species receptors at more than the

local/parish level will occur. Effects at the local/parish level are listed, Volume 5:

Appendix EC-005-002.

Other mitigation measures 7.5.7 In the absence of any significant ecological impacts, no mitigation is required Summary of likely residual significant effects 7.5.8 There are no likely significant residual ecological effects during operation.

–  –  –

8 Land quality

Introduction

8.1 8.1.1 This section presents the baseline conditions that exist along the Proposed Scheme in relation to land quality and reports the likely impacts and any significant effects resulting from construction and operation of the Proposed Scheme. Consideration is given to land that potentially contains contamination and land that has special geological significance, either from a scientific, mining or mineral resources point of view including geological sites of special scientific interest (SSSI), local geological sites (LGS), areas of current underground or opencast mining and areas of designated mineral resources. Mitigation measures are presented and any residual effects are summarised.

8.1.2 Potentially contaminated areas of land have been identified that could affect, or be affected by, the construction of the Proposed Scheme (for example contaminated soils may need to be removed or the construction may alter existing contamination pathways). Each of these areas has been studied to evaluate the scale of potential impacts caused by existing contamination (if present) and what needs to be done to avoid significant consequences to people and the wider environment. In addition, a review has been undertaken to establish whether the operation of the Proposed Scheme will lead to contamination of its surrounding environment and what needs to be done to prevent such contamination.

8.1.3 The main environmental features of this area include the River Colne, the Grand Union Canal, Broadwater Lake Nature Reserve, Mid Colne Valley SSSI, Northmoor Hill Wood Local Nature Reserve, Mid Colne Valley SMI, Brackenbury Railway Cutting SBI, Dew’s Dell SBI and the underlying Chalk principal aquifer.

8.1.4 The main land quality issues in this area include:

 the existing Chiltern Main Line;

 Broadwater Park industrial estate;

 historical landfills along the route;

 potentially in-filled historical chalk, sand and gravel workings along the route;

 Mineral Safeguarding Areas for sand and gravel extraction; and  an extant planning permission associated with the sand and gravel located at Denham Park Farm (Buckinghamshire County Council) and a former mineral extraction site on Moorhall Road (LBH).

8.1.5 Details of baseline information and the land quality assessment methodology are

outlined in the following appendices (presented, Volume 5):

 Appendix CT-001-000/1: the SMR and Appendix CT-001-000/2 the SMR Addendum; and  Appendix LQ-001-007: Land quality appendix.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Land quality

8.1.6 Land contamination issues are closely linked with those involving water resources and waste. Issues regarding groundwater resources are addressed in Section 13 Water resources and flood risk assessment. Issues regarding the disposal of waste materials, including contaminated soils, are addressed in Volume 3: Section 16.

8.1.7 Engagement has been undertaken with the Three Rivers, South Bucks and Chiltern District Councils and the Environment Agency regarding land contamination and Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire County Councils with regards to mineral policy.

To date, information has been received on mineral extraction and Mineral Safeguarding Areas (June 2013) and contaminated land. Information provided is described in Section 2 Engagement (Volume 5).

Scope, assumptions and limitations 8.2 8.2.1 The assessment scope, key assumptions and limitations for the land quality assessment are set out in Volume 1 and in the SMR and its addendum presented, Volume 5 (Appendices CT-001-000/1 and 2). This section follows the standard assessment methodology.

8.2.2 Baseline data were reviewed for the area of land required to construct the Proposed Scheme together with a buffer extending out for a minimum of 250m, but in the case of groundwater data up to 1km. This is defined as the study area.

8.2.3 Familiarisation visits to the study area were made in July 2012 where the location of the Proposed Scheme was viewed from points of public access only. Due to access constraints not all sites considered to have the greatest potential for contamination were visited. However, the purpose of site visits is to verify desktop information and the lack of complete site walkovers is considered unlikely to have substantially affected the land quality assessment.

Environmental baseline 8.3 Existing baseline 8.3.1 Unless otherwise stated, all features described in this section are presented in Maps LQ-01-011 to LQ-001-013a (Volume 5, Land Quality Map Book).

Geology 8.3.

2 This section describes the underlying ground conditions within the study area. It first describes any made ground present, followed by near surface superficial deposits and lastly describes the deeper bedrock geology. The geological mapping is illustrated on Map WR-02-007 (Volume 5, Water Resources and Flood Risk Assessment Map Book).

8.3.3 The Proposed Scheme in this study area mostly crosses agricultural land however, a cover of made ground may be present in built up areas of the study area as a result of previous cycles of development.

8.3.4 Historical mapping shows in-filled ground located at former gravel pits south of Moorhall Road, 200m north of the Proposed Scheme and to the east of Tilehouse Lane, 55m east of the Proposed Scheme in this area. A disused quarry is also known to be present north of Denham Green, 105m from the Proposed Scheme. This may

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Land quality

contain some reworked chalk or made ground. Flooded historical gravel pits are present in the Colne Valley, making up the Broadwater Lake Nature Reserve.

8.3.5 Across the majority of the southern and central areas of the Proposed Scheme, superficial deposits consist of River Alluvium, mainly clay, peat and silt, associated with the River Colne and its tributaries. In areas of worked ground, such as gravel pits to the north and south of the Proposed Scheme in the central section of the study area around the Broadwater Lake Nature Reserve, the older Shepperton Gravel, comprising sand and gravel with sparse lenses of silt and clay, has been exposed by the workings. There is also a thin exposure of Taplow Gravels near Battlesford Wood in the central area of the route section extending southwards. The Proposed Scheme crosses a small mapped area of Winter Hill Gravel at Tilehouse Lane which extends southwards, described as a sand and gravel with sparse lenses of silt and clay.

Superficial deposits are absent along parts of the southern section of the study area where the bedrock is indicated as either Thames Group or Lambeth Group.

8.3.6 The bedrock geology of the first 150m at the southern end of this route section comprises the clay, silt and sand deposits of the Upnor and Reading Formations of the Lambeth Group. To the south of the Proposed Scheme the study area is underlain by London Clay from the Thames Group. This is typically stiff, grey weathering to brown clay with thin beds of sand and pebbles at the base and an expected thickness of up to 50m in this area. The remainder of the Proposed Scheme and study area is underlain by Seaford and Newhaven Formations of the Cretaceous White Chalk (a soft limestone with nodular flint beds) with a thickness of the order of 50m in this area.

Groundwater 8.3.7 The Chalk bedrock has been designated as a Principal Aquifer and the Lambeth Group has been designated as a Secondary A Aquifer by the Environment Agency. The Thames Group, including the London Clay, has been designated as unproductive strata. Where drift deposits are present at the surface these are designated as Secondary A Aquifers.

8.3.8 The entire route section will be within a Source Protection Zone (SPZ). The majority of the Proposed Scheme will cross a Zone 1 Inner Protection Zone (SPZ1), although there are three smaller sections that will cross through a Zone 2 Outer Protection Zone (SPZ2), as shown on Map WR-02-007 (Volume 5, Water Resources and Flood Risk Assessment Map Book).

8.3.9 A search for groundwater abstractions confirmed that there are three groundwater abstractions for Public Water Supply (PWS) within 1km of this section of the route.

8.3.10 Environment Agency information indicates that there are ten licensed groundwater abstractions (excluding PWS) and one unlicensed groundwater abstraction. One of these abstractions is located at Denham Laboratories and is for a pump and treat remediation system.

8.3.11 Further detail on the groundwater beneath the Proposed Scheme can be found in Section 13 Water resources and flood risk assessment.

8.3.19 Contaminants commonly associated with these uses could include metals, semimetals, asbestos, organic and inorganic compounds. In-filled pits could also give rise to landfill gases such as methane or carbon dioxide.

Other regulatory data 8.3.20 Regulatory data reviewed include pollution incidents, radioactive and hazardous substances consents and environmental permits (previously landfill, Integrated Pollution Control (IPC) and Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)

licences). Notable data is as follows:

 five currently permitted or authorised Local Authority (LA) Pollution Prevention and Controls for mobile screening and crushing process, blending, packing, load and use of cement, petrol filling station, respraying of road vehicles and blending, packing, loading and use of bulk cement;

 two significant and one minor pollution incident to land; and  one prosecution relating to authorised processes against the Harven Form Foundry (see Map LQ-01-012, F2, Volume 5, Land Quality Map Book).

Mining/mineral resources 8.3.21 A number of policies from LBH Local Plan: Part 1 (2001) and Hillingdon Local Plan:

Part2 (formerly Saved Policies 2007) seek to preserve and enhance the boroughs/districts’ land quality. Specifically the saved LBH UDP Policy MIN1 seeks to safeguard sand and gravel reserves from sterilisation by surface development. Core Strategy Policy EM9 affords similar policy protection to safeguarded mineral resources.



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