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«LONDONWEST MIDLANDS ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT Volume 2 | Community Forum Area report CFA7 | Colne Valley November 2013 ES VOL LondonWest Midlands ...»

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Other mitigation measures 5.5.7 In the event that HOAC is using its existing site during the operation of the Proposed Scheme (which will depend on the solution agreed for the construction impacts) other mitigation will be needed to ensure that the current function of HOAC is retained. This will include replacement storage facilities and appropriate alternative facilities for onsite activities such as climbing/camping where these are affected by noise from the railway.

5.5.8 This will form part on the on-going discussions with HOAC, and other relevant stakeholders, and HS2 Ltd remains committed to seeking to agree a solution with HOAC to allow the facility to continue to operate.

Summary of likely significant residual effects 5.5.9 In the event that HOAC is operating at its existing site, there will be an effect on the amenity of users and staff. The amenity of residential properties next to Denham Grove (De Vere Hotel) will also be affected.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Community

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6 Cultural heritage


6.1 6.1.1 This section of the report provides a description of the current baseline for heritage assets and reports the likely impacts and significant effects resulting from the construction and operation of the Proposed Scheme. Consideration is given to the extent and heritage value (significance) of assets including archaeological and palaeoenvironmental remains, historic buildings and the built environment and historic landscapes.

6.1.2 With regard to heritage assets, the main issue is the extent to which designated and non-designated assets are affected by the Proposed Scheme. Impacts on assets as a result of the Proposed Scheme will occur largely through physical removal and alterations to the structures and changes to setting.

6.1.3 Maps showing the location of the key environmental features can be found in Map Series CT-10 (Volume 2, CFA 7 Map Book). The location of all designated and nondesignated heritage assets can be found on Map CH-01-023 to CH-01-025a-L1 and CH-02-011 (Volume 5, Cultural Heritage Map Book). Detailed reports on the cultural heritage character and surveys undertaken within the study area are contained in the

Volume 5 Appendices. These include:

 Appendix CH-001-007 – Baseline report;

 Appendix CH-002-007 – Gazetteer of heritage assets;

 Appendix CH-003-007 – Impact assessment table; and  Appendix CH-004-007 – Survey reports.

6.1.4 Throughout this section, assets within the study areas are identified with a unique reference code, i.e. CVA001. Further detail on these assets can be found in the gazetteer, Volume 5: Appendix CH-002-007.

6.1.5 Engagement has been undertaken with Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire County Archaeological Advisors with regard to the nature of the cultural heritage assets within the study area.

Scope, assumptions and limitations 6.2 6.2.1 The assessment scope, key assumptions and limitations for the cultural heritage assessment are set out in Volume 1 and in the SMR (see Volume 5: Appendix CT-001-000/1) and the SMR Addendum (see Volume 5: Appendix CT-001-000/2).

This report follows the standard assessment methodology.

6.2.2 The setting of all designated heritage assets lying within the Zone of Theoretical Visibility (ZTV) of the Proposed Scheme has been considered. The study area within which a detailed assessment of all assets, designated and non-designated, has been carried out, is defined as the land required, temporarily and permanently, to construct the Proposed Scheme plus 500m.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Cultural heritage

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A remote sensing technique using lasers to produce 3d surface mapping.

The archaeological risk model is an approach that enables the identification of those areas of the Proposed Scheme where archaeological assets are known or suspected and provides a mechanism for the prioritisation of the programme of survey.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Cultural heritage

 one scheduled monument of high value, a mound with ditch and outer bank to the south of Savay Farm (CVA023);

 four Grade I listed buildings of high value including St Mary’s Church in South Harefield (CVA062), Breakspear House in South Harefield (CVA063), St Mary’s Church in Denham (within asset grouping CVA013) and The Savay at Savay Farm (within asset grouping CVA023);

 four Grade II* listed buildings of high value including the Dovecote at Breakspear House in South Harefield (CVA064), a footbridge over the River Colne to the north of Denham Court (CVA015), Hills House in Denham (within asset grouping CVA013 ) and the Almshouse, Harefield (within asset grouping CVA068);

 two conservation areas of high value due to the presence of Grade I or II* listed buildings within them including Denham (asset grouping CVA013) and Harefield (asset grouping CVA068);

 three conservation areas that can be considered of high value in their association with the Grand Union Canal (a high value asset) at Denham Lock (CVA004), Blackjacks and Coppermill Lock (CVA086) and Widewater Lock (CVA037);

 44 Grade II listed buildings of moderate value. Of these 16 are in Denham and 17 in Harefield. The others include the former film studios at Denham Green (CVA036) and structures associated with the Australian Military Cemetery in Harefield (CVA059 and CVA060);

 two Grade II registered parks and gardens of moderate value at Denham Place (CVA001) and Harefield Place (CVA055); and  14 areas of ancient woodland of high value at Juniper Wood (CVA067), Oakend Wood (CVA051), Denham Marsh Wood (CVA041), Great Halings Wood (CVA056), Northmoor Hill Wood (CVA052), Nightingale Wood (CVA039), Holly Hill Woods (CVA038), Battlesford Wood (CVA045), Old Park Wood (CVA090), Nockhill Wood (CVA065), Ladywalk Wood (CVA101), The Pinnocks Wood (CVA105), Clay Pit Wood (CVA109) and Scarlet Spring (CVA110).

Non-designated assets 6.3.5 One non-designated asset of high value lies wholly or partially within the land required, temporarily and permanently, for construction of the Proposed Scheme.

This is the Grand Union Canal (CVA102).

6.3.6 The following non-designated assets of moderate value lie wholly or partially within the land required, temporarily or permanently, for construction of the Proposed Scheme (see Maps CH-01-023 to CH-01-025a-L1, Volume 5, Cultural Heritage Map


 Thames Terrace gravel deposits which are likely to contain Palaeolithic stone artefacts as indicated by finds of Palaeolithic tools throughout the study area during gravel extraction and road construction (CVA044);

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Cultural heritage  deposits potentially containing evidence for Mesolithic activity in the area of Dew’s Farm (CVA021);

 Dew’s Farm, a locally listed building and possible former medieval manorial site (CVA022); and  late Iron Age to early medieval activity including a Romano-British agricultural site identified at Denham Park Farm and Chenies (CVA076).

6.3.7 The following identified non-designated assets of low value lie wholly or partially within the land required, temporarily or permanently, for the construction of the Proposed Scheme (see Maps CH-01-023 to CH-001-025a-L1, Volume 5, Cultural

Heritage Map Book):

 the Uxbridge High Street Branch Railway (CVA003);

 site of a World War II pillbox (CVA012);

 site of a World War II pillbox (CVA017);

 the Great Western and Great Central Joint Railway (CVA020);

 Mesolithic flint working site at Dew’s Pit (evidence has probably already been removed during mineral extraction) (CVA029);

 site of a late 19th century garden at the Fishery (CVA034);

 site of 19th century gardens at Denham Grove (De Vere Hotel) (CVA073);

 area of suspected prehistoric archaeology indicated by cropmarks at Tilehouse Lane but where trial trenching proved inconclusive (CVA080);

 site of a World War II searchlight battery at Corner Hall (CVA084); and  Old Shire Lane (a possible Roman road) and associated hedgerows (CVA094).

6.3.8 All non-designated heritage assets within 500m of the land required, temporarily or permanently, for construction of the Proposed Scheme are listed in the gazetteer, Volume 5: Appendix CH-002-007 and identified on Maps CH-01-023 to CH-01-025a-L1 (Volume 5, Cultural Heritage Map Book). There are no non-designated built heritage assets that require consideration of their settings.

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The geological epoch that began at the end of the last glacial period c. 12,000 BC and has continued almost to the present day.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Cultural heritage Alderbourne which cut through the Chalk of the Chilterns and at Sandstone, Iver, flint tools were found lying upon the basal floodplain gravels.

6.3.17 Mesolithic to Bronze Age flints have been found near Marsh Farm close to the border with CFA8. Mesolithic finds have also been recovered from Dew’s Farm (CVA021) and Dew’s Pit (CVA029) on the eastern side of the valley. At Dew’s Farm the finds were made in association with organic sediments suggesting that a preserved land surface could be present in this area. The assemblage recovered from Dew’s Pit indicated the presence of a stone working site, again suggestive of a preserved land surface being present in this area.

6.3.18 Numerous Bronze Age to Neolithic flints have been found near Mopes Farm and Warren Farm (CVA078) some in association with a prehistoric ground surface or within pits. Neolithic flints have also been recovered during fieldwalking to the east of Denham (CVA006). Flint scatters aside; there is no evidence of Bronze Age or Iron Age settlement or funerary activity within the study area.

6.3.19 There is evidence to point to continuity of settlement from the Late Iron Age into the centuries following the Roman invasion of Britain in AD 43 onwards into the postConquest (AD 43) period. The study area during this period formed part of the civitas of the Catuvellauni.

6.3.20 The pattern of Roman rural settlement in the Colne Valley was likely to have been one of dispersed agrarian villas and farmsteads. An example of such a settlement has been identified during archaeological investigations at Denham Park Farm and Chenies (CVA076) where a Late Iron Age settlement appears to have continued to develop in the Roman period.

6.3.21 Generally there appears to have been a re-location of settlement during the late 1st to 2nd centuries AD to focus on the line of newly established Roman roads and market centres.

6.3.22 At least one possible Roman road lies within the study area on the western side of the Colne Valley (CVA066). The alignment of this road is far from clearly defined within the study area although it is possible that it has become fossilised into the alignments of extant tracks such as Old Shire Lane (CVA094).

6.3.23 Understanding what was occurring in the 5th to 7th centuries AD is very challenging.

Material culture is drastically reduced as handmade Anglo-Saxon pottery does not survive well in plough soils and coinage is only present reliably from c. AD 700 and even then is very rare. Much of the evidence for the 5th to 7th centuries comes from cemeteries, although place names can also be a very useful indicator of settlement activity of this period.

6.3.24 Documentary evidence suggests that early medieval settlement was becoming more extensive by the 8th century AD as there are references in Anglo-Saxon charters of the settlements at Iver and Denham (CVA013). Early medieval manorial centres may also be present at Pynesfield (CVA091) and at The Savay (CVA023).

6.3.25 Evidence of medieval (AD 1066-1539) settlement will probably be located in and adjacent to existing settlement in the area, although the possibility of there being CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Cultural heritage abandoned medieval settlements cannot be entirely discounted. A number of medieval manorial sites are located within the study area including a moated manor at The Savay (CVA023), manorial sites at Pynesfield (CVA091), South Harefield (CVA042), Le Troy (CVA079) and possibly Dew’s Farm (CVA022).

6.3.26 It is likely that the pattern of settlement established in the medieval period forms the basis for the pattern that continued through the post-medieval period (AD 1539 –

1900) to the present day.

6.3.27 The widespread enclosure of the landscape to create the present arrangement of hedged fields and winding tracks may have begun with the dissolution of the monasteries in the 16th century and accelerated with the introduction of new farming techniques during the 17th century.

6.3.28 A number of large houses established by the gentry are present within the Colne Valley and are often associated with surrounding planned estates as at Denham Place (CVA001), Denham Court (CVA007), The Fishery (CVA034) and Harefield Place (CVA055 and CVA058).

6.3.29 Many of the extant farmhouses and associated agricultural buildings in the study area were built between the 17th and 19th centuries but were founded on the sites of older buildings, some dating back to the medieval period as at Pynchfield Farm (CVA092) and The Savay (CVA023). It is buildings of these types that make up the majority of the listed buildings in the study area.

6.3.30 The Colne Valley has a rich and diverse landscape character that was mainly formed during the rapid changes of the last two hundred years but still contains some elements of earlier features. Relatively early post-medieval enclosures can be identified on the eastern side of the Colne Valley and there is a good survival of ancient woodland with 12 parcels of designated ancient woodland being present within the study area.

6.3.31 From the later prehistoric period through to the 19th century the Colne Valley was primarily an agricultural landscape that began a slow transformation with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and construction of the Grand Union Canal (CVA102) in the latter half of the 18th century.

6.3.32 The scale and pace of transformation increased during the 19th century with the construction of the railways, including the Great Western and Great Central Joint Railway (CVA020) and Uxbridge High Street Junction Railway (CVA003). This development ran in parallel with the rapid expansion of London, with its associated increase in population pressure and demand for resources and raw materials. By the later 19th century the study area had a long tradition of dairy farming to supply the needs of the rapidly expanding capital.

6.3.33 Rapid changes occurred to the landscape character of the Colne Valley during the 20th century due to its proximity to central London attracting suburban settlement and its rich gravel resources attracting extensive aggregate extraction. The latter has removed much of the Terrace Gravels from the valley floor of the Colne. These excavations have since flooded to create the lakes that now characterise the area.

CFA Report – Colne Valley/No7 | Cultural heritage

6.3.34 Alongside the gravel extraction suburban expansion occurred throughout the study area focused around the settlements that had developed in the medieval period.

Some developments such as the now demolished Denham Garden Village were planned estates (CVA030). The Denham Film Studios (CVA036) were also established in the 1930s but became industrial units in the 1950s. Other industry includes the Harefield Rubber Company (CVA088).

6.3.35 In World War I the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) created an airfield near Denham Aerodrome (CVA040) which has continued in use as a landing ground through to the present day. During World War II two pill boxes (CVA012 and CVA017) may have been constructed near the junction of the Great Western and Great Central Junction Railway and the Uxbridge High Street Junction Railway. A searchlight battery was also established near Corner Hall (CVA084). The Australian Military Cemetery was established after World War I at Harefield.

6.3.36 Much of the agricultural land in the study area is characterised by 20th century prairie fields (especially to the west of the A412 Denham Way/North Orbital Road up to the M25) created by the amalgamation of smaller fields originally enclosed in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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