WWW.SA.I-PDF.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, books, theses
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 25 | 26 || 28 | 29 |   ...   | 35 |

«Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: © OECD 2014 You can copy, download or print OECD content for ...»

-- [ Page 27 ] --

Today, almost 80% of those living on less than 2 US dollars a day reside in middle-income countries. Despite impressive economic growth in recent years and substantial improvements in health and educational outcomes, growth has been a necessary but not sufficient condition for poverty reduction – growth needs to be more inclusive.

Inequality is also related to sustainability, the second pillar of the post-2015 agenda. As mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, OECD research suggests that increasing inequalities erode social cohesion, stifle upward social mobility, threaten equality of opportunities and generate political instability (OECD 2011d). Given its prime importance for the future of poverty reduction and sustainability, tackling inequality in its many dimensions (income, political, gender etc.) is crucial for achieving global goals.

Aid can help foster Inclusive Growth, but important challenges need to be addressed. Aid helps to support government capacities, address infrastructure deficiencies, and improve education, health care and social protection systems for the poor. These areas are especially important in the poorest, most fragile and conflict-affected states. For such countries, official development assistance (ODA) accounted for over 60% of external financing over the 2005-2010 period (by contrast, for middle income countries, ODA represented a mere 4%, (Adugna et al., 2011)). Because of the wide variations in aid per inhabitant, the different goals at which aid is aimed, and the comparatively small amounts involved (USD 31.5 per capita per year according to Tarp (2006), it is not easy to quantify the impact of ODA on growth. However, Arndt et al. (2010) finds that ODA equivalent to 1% of GDP raised GDP growth by 0.1% on average over the 1970-2000 period, a small but helpful impact. Clemens et al. (2012) found that increases in aid are usually followed by increases in investment and growth, although the magnitude of this relationship is modest, and it varies greatly across recipients and diminishes at high levels of aid. Similarly, studies on the role of ODA in assisting Inclusive Growth by reducing poverty and promoting health and education have been positive, but with room for improvement (Collier and Dollar, 2002; Bourgignon and Sundberg, 2007;

Virtanen and Ehrenpreis, 2007; Alvi and Senbeta, 2012). Also, Huang and Quibria (2013) find that foreign aid has a positive impact on Inclusive Growth in their sample of countries, especially when aid is directed at the areas of health and education.

There are several areas where aid could make a significant difference in making growth more

inclusive. In particular:

 Expand access of the poor to vital and proven technologies, such as high-yield seeds, immunisations, modern contraception or Internet connectivity (Sachs, 2005). Easterly (2006) notes that such interventions “give the poorest people the health, nutrition, education, and other inputs that raise the payoffs to their own efforts to better their lives”.

 Identify barriers to growth and take steps to increase the inclusiveness of the growth process, for example by increasing processing of raw materials and not just their extraction (where this makes economic sense) and by providing infrastructure that helps the poor to access markets (OECD, 2007).

 Improve the business environment, provide market information and infrastructure while cutting red tape. The significant risks to doing business in developing countries, especially the fragile and conflict-affected states, can be mitigated via loan guarantees and other debt and equity instruments.

 In the short term, there remains a need for aid-supported social protection. Micro-insurance schemes have their uses, although they might not be the most appropriate social protection mechanism for the poor. There have been many positive experiences with Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes (CCTs) on school enrolment rates, reduced school drop-out and improved health and clinic attendance. CCTs are “as close as you can come to magic bullet in development by creating an incentive for families to invest in their own children’s futures”.57  Effective democratic governance is a pre-requisite for Inclusive Growth. Aid that improves government accountability and citizen-state relations can help reduce poverty and support rights, equity and justice, in particular for marginalised populations. Donors can help through technical assistance focusing on electoral processes, the strengthening of legislatures and judiciaries as checks on executive power, and the protection of civil society organizations, including a free press (Knack, 2004).

 Aid should foster complementary and coherent policies for inclusive and sustainable growth. Aid can promote renewable energy, low-carbon transportation networks, clean water, waste disposal and sewage treatment, sustainable agriculture and drought-resistant crops; thereby improving economic opportunity, energy access, and public health and sanitation for the poor.

Furthermore, aid for capacity building in the areas of eco-system services schemes, environmental fiscal reform and fuel subsidy reform helps meet environmental goals. If savings and revenues are invested in health, education and poverty programmes, environmental and social objectives can be achieved simultaneously.

–  –  –





Achtenhagen, L. and F. Welter (2011), “Surfing on the ironing board – the representation of women’s entrepreneurship in German newspapers”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 23, No. 9-10, pp. 763-786.

Acs, Z. et al. (2005), “Growth and entrepreneurship: An empirical assessment”, Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Papers, No. 5409.

Adugna, A. et al. (2011), “Finance for development: trends and opportunities in a changing landscape”, World Bank Group Concessional Finance and Global Partnerships (CFP) Working Paper Series, No. 8.

Agence Pour la Création d’Entreprises (APCE) and Maghreb Ressources Humaines (2002), “Création d'entreprise par les entrepreneurs issus de l'immigration: L’exemple des entrepreneurs d’origines maghrébines”, Collection FOCUS, Paris.

Al Sayed, K. and S. Hanna (2013), “How city spaces afford opportunities for riots”, in Y. Kim, H. Park and K. Seo (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium, Sejong University, Seoul.

Alvi, E. and A. Senbeta (2012), “Does foreign aid reduce poverty?”, Journal of International Development, Vol. 24, No. 8, pp.955–976.

Anderson, P. et al. (September 2011), “Alcohol, work and productivity”, European Alcohol and Health Forum, http://ec.europa.eu/health/alcohol/docs/science_02_en.pdf Arndt, C., S. Jones and F. Tarp (2010), “Aid, Growth, and Development: Have We Come Full Circle?”, Journal of Globalization and Development, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 1-29 Arnold, J. et al. (2011), “Tax policy for economic recovery and growth”, The Economic Journal, Vol. 121, No. 550, pp. 59-80.

Auld, M. C. (2005), “Smoking, drinking and income”, Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 505-518.

Banerjee, A. and E. Duflo (2007), “The economic lives of the poor”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 141-168.

Barder, O. (2013), “When Should Donors Mitigate Private-Sector Risk?”, Center for Global Development Ideas to Action Blog, http://international.cgdev.org/blog/when-should-donors-mitigate-privatesector-risk

Barrientos, A. and D. Hume (2009), “Social Protection for the Poor and Poorest in Developing Countries:

Reflections on a Quiet Revolution”, Oxford Development Studies, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 439-456.

Bas, M. and C. Paunov (2014), “Unequal opportunities for all: India’s industrial liberalization and its impact on the decision to innovate”, STI Working Papers, OECD Publishing, Paris (forthcoming).

Bassanini, A. and R. Duval (2006), “Employment patterns in OECD countries: Reassessing the role of policies and institutions”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 486, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Basu, A (2006), “Ethnic Minority Entrepreneurship”, in M. Casson et al. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurship, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Bauer, P. T. (1972), Dissent on Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bertranou, F. and R. Maurizio (2010), “The role of labour market and social protection in reducing inequality and eradicating poverty in Latin America”, presented at the International Conference on Social Cohesion and Development, OECD, Paris, 20-21 January.

Blanchard, O. and F. Giavazzi (2003), “Macroeconomic effects of regulations and deregulation in goods and labor markets”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 118, No. 3, pp.879-907.

Blundell-Wignall A. and P. Atkinson (2011), “Global SIFIs, derivatives and financial stability”, OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Vol. 2011/1, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Blundell-Wignall, A., P. Atkinson and C. Roulet (2014a), “Bank business models and the Basel system:

Complexity and interconnectedness”, OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Vol. 2013/2, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Blundell-Wignall, A., P. Atkinson and C. Roulet (2014b), “Bank business models and the separation issue”, OECD Journal: Financial Market Trends, Vol. 2013/2, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Bourguignon, F. and M. Sundberg (2007), “Aid effectiveness: Opening the black box”, American Economics Review, Vol. 97, No. 2, pp. 316-321.

Brunello, G. and B. d’Hombres (2007), “Does body weight affect wages: Evidence from Europe”, Economics and Human Biology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-19.

Caliendo, M. and A. Kritikos (2010), “Start-ups by the unemployed: Characteristics, survival and direct employment effects”, Small Business Economics, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 71-92.

Causa, O. and Å. Johansson (2009), “Intergenerational social mobility”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 707, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Cawley, J. (2004), “The impact of obesity on wages”, Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 451-474.

Cecchini M. et al. (2010), “Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: Health effects and cost-effectiveness”, The Lancet, Vol. 376, pp. 1775-1784.

Cheshire, P., S. Gibbons and I. Gordon (2008), “Policies for ‘mixed communities’: A critical evaluation”, SERC Policy Papers, No. 2, June, Spatial Economics Research Centre, London, UK.

Clemens, M. et al. (2012), “Counting chickens when they hatch: Timing and the effects of aid on growth”, The Economic Journal, Vol. 122, No. 561, Royal Economic Society pp. 590-617.

Collier, P. and D. Dollar (2002), “Aid allocation and poverty reduction”, European Economic Review, Vol. 46, No. 8, pp. 1475-1500.

Creedy J. and R. Dixon (1998), “The relative burden of monopoly on households with different incomes”, Economica, Vol. 65, No. 258, pp. 285-293.

Deaton, A. (2013), The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Della Croce, R., Yermo, J., (2013), “Institutional investors and infrastructure financing”, OECD Working Papers on Finance, Insurance and Private Pensions, No.36, OECD Publishing.

http://www.oecd.org/daf/fin/privatepensions/WP_36_InstitutionalInvestorsAndInfrastructureFinancing.pdf Denk, O. et al. (2013), “Inequality and poverty in the United States: Public policies for inclusive growth”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 1052, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Devaux, S. et al. (2011), “Exploring the relationship between education and obesity”, OECD Journal:

Economic Studies, Vol.2011/1, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Devereux, S. and C. Solomon (2006), “Employment creation programmes: The international experience”, International Labour Office Discussion Papers, No. 24, Geneva.

Easterly, W. (2003), “Can foreign aid buy growth?”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 23–48.

Easterly, W. (2006), The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good, Penguin Press, New York.

Emmerij, L. (2002), “Aid as a flight forward”, Development and Change, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 247-260.

European Commission (2012), “Entrepreneurship in the EU and beyond”, Flash Eurobarometer 354.

European Commission (2005), “Factors of business success survey”, Eurostat.

Eurostat (2010), “Highly educated men and women likely to live longer”, No. 24/2010, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-10-024/EN/KS-SF-10-024-EN.PDF.

Faggio, G. (2014), “Relocation of public sector workers: Evaluating a place-based policy”, SERC Discussion Papers, No. 155, February, Spatial Economics Research Centre, London, UK.

Fiori, G. et al. (2007), “Employment outcomes and the interaction between product and labor market deregulation: Are they substitutes or complements?”, IZA Discussion Papers, No. 2770, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

Fournier, J.-M. and I. Koske (2012), “Less income inequality and more growth—are they compatible? Part

7. The drivers of labour earnings inequality – an analysis based on conditional and unconditional quantile regressions”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 930, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Froy, F. et al. (2011), "Building flexibility and accountability into local employment services: Synthesis of OECD Studies in Belgium, Canada, Denmark and the Netherlands", OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, No. 2011/10, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Froy, F. and S. Giguère (2010), "Putting in Place Jobs that Last: A Guide to Rebuilding Quality Employment at Local Level", OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, No. 2010/13, OECD Publishing.

Goodhart, C. (2013), Risk, Reward and Bank Resilience (paper presented to Paris-based conference “The Limits of Global and Regional Surveillance: the Case of the Euro Area”, 23 September 2013), conference proceedings, forthcoming Gomez Sabaíni, J.C., Jimenez, J.P. (2012), “Tax structure and tax evasion in Latin America”, ECLAC Macroeconomics of Development, No. 118, United Nations, Santiago.

Griffith, R., R. Harrison and G. Macartney (2007), “Product market reforms, labour market institutions and unemployment”, Economic Journal, Vol. 117, No. 519, pp. C142-C166, 03, Royal Economic Society.

G20 (2009a), “G20 leaders' final statement at Pittsburgh summit: Framework for strong, sustainable and balanced growth”, www.g20.utoronto.ca/2009/2009communique0925.html.

G20 (2009b), “The Seoul Development Consensus for Shared Growth”, http://www.oecd.org/g20/meetings/seoul/Annex1-Seoul-Development-Consensus-SharedGrowth.pdf Hausman, J and G. Sidak (2004), “Why do the poor and the less-educated pay more for long-distance phone calls?”, Contributions in Economic and Policy Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-26.

Hillier, W (2013), “Credible mechanisms or spatial determinism”, Cities, Vol. 34, October, pp.75-77.

Huang, Y. and M. Quibria (2013), “The global partnership for inclusive growth”, WIDER Working Paper, No. 2013/059.

IEA (2011), World Energy Outlook, OECD Publishing, Paris IEA (2010), World Energy Outlook, OECD Publishing, Paris IEA (2009), World Energy Outlook, OECD Publishing, Paris ILO and OECD (2011), “Towards national social protection floors”, policy note prepared for the G20 Meeting of Labour and Employment Ministers, Paris, 26-27 September 2011, ILO, Geneva.

IMF (2013), Regional Economic Outlook 2013: Sub-Saharan Africa, IMF, Washington, DC IMF (2011), Regional Economic Outlook 2011: Sub-Saharan Africa, IMF, Washington, DC IPEA (2012), “A década inclusiva (2001-2011): Desigualdade, pobreza et políticas de renda”, Comunicados do IPEA, No. 155, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, Brasilia.

Isaksson, M. and S. Çelik (2013), “Who cares? Corporate governance in today's equity markets”, OECD Corporate Governance Working Papers, No. 8, OECD Publishing, Paris.

James, C. (2012), “Lives on the line: Mapping life expectancy along the London Tube network”, Environment and Planning, Vol. 44, No. 7, pp.1525-1528.

Joumard, I. et al. (2012), “Less Income Inequality and More Growth – Are They Compatible? Part 3.



Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 25 | 26 || 28 | 29 |   ...   | 35 |


Similar works:

«IN THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF KANSAS No. 111,513 STATE OF KANSAS, Appellee, v. WILLIAM F. SCHAAL, JR., Appellant. SYLLABUS BY THE COURT 1. An appellate court reviews a district court's ruling on a presentence motion to withdraw plea for abuse of discretion. 2. Judicial discretion is abused if judicial action is (1) arbitrary, fanciful, or unreasonable, i.e., if no reasonable person would have taken the view adopted by the trial court; (2) based on an error of law, i.e., if the discretion...»

«ICJI 301 EFFECT OF DEFENDANT'S ELECTION NOT TO TESTIFY INSTRUCTION NO. _ A defendant in a criminal trial has a constitutional right not to be compelled to testify. The decision whether to testify is left to the defendant, acting with the advice and assistance of the defendant's lawyer. You must not draw any inference of guilt from the fact that the defendant does not testify, nor should this fact be discussed by you or enter into your deliberations in any way. ICJI 302 CREDIBILITY OF DEFENDANT...»

«A/63/271 United Nations General Assembly Distr.: General 12 August 2008 English Original: Spanish Sixty-third session Item 67 (b) of the provisional agenda* Promotion and protection of human rights: human rights questions, including alternative approaches for improving the effective enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms Independence of judges and lawyers Note by the Secretary-General The Secretary-General has the honour to transmit to the members of the General Assembly the interim...»

«UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF NEW HAMPSHIRE Lys Ann Weiss v. Civil No. 13-cv-376-LM Opinion No. 2014 DNH 221 Dartmouth College ORDER The Plaintiff, Lys Ann Weiss, was – and remains – employed by the Defendant, Dartmouth College. In this lawsuit, Ms. Weiss alleges that she was the victim of unlawful discrimination and harassment on the basis of her age and gender, and that her superiors retaliated against her for voicing her concerns. Now, Dartmouth has filed a motion for...»

«FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 255 Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising **** This document includes only the text of the Revised Endorsement and Testimonial Guides. To learn more, read the Federal Register Notice at www.ftc.gov/opa/2009/10/endortest.shtm. * * * * § 255.0 Purpose and definitions. (a) The Guides in this part represent administrative interpretations of laws enforced by the Federal Trade Commission for the guidance of the public in...»

«NELLCO NELLCO Legal Scholarship Repository New York University Public Law and Legal Theory New York University School of Law Working Papers 8-1-2012 UNDERCOVER POLICING, OVERSTATED CULPABILITY Eda Katharine Tinto NYU School of Law, tintoe@exchange.law.nyu.edu Follow this and additional works at: http://lsr.nellco.org/nyu_plltwp Part of the Criminal Law Commons, and the Criminal Procedure Commons Recommended Citation Tinto, Eda Katharine, UNDERCOVER POLICING, OVERSTATED CULPABILITY (2012). New...»

«“Development Challenges confronting Pakistan” Sponsored by the American Institute of Pakistan Studies Friday and Saturday, May 6-7, 2011 Conference Steering Committee: Dr. Anita M. Weiss, University of Oregon Dr. Rifaat Hussain, Quaid-e-Azam University Dr. Saba Gul Khattak, Pakistan Planning Commission Dr. S. Akbar Zaidi, Karachi & Columbia University Abstracts and Participant Biodatas (in alphabetical order) Aitzaz Ahsan “What Must be Changed in Pakistan’s Legal System, but How to...»

«PREPARED STATEMENT OF THE FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION on S. 2171 THE LOCATION PRIVACY PROTECTION ACT OF 2014 Before the UNITED STATES SENATE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY SUBCOMMITTEE FOR PRIVACY, TECHNOLOGY AND THE LAW Washington, D.C. June 4, 2014 I. Introduction Chairman Franken, Ranking Member Flake, and members of the Subcommittee, my name is Jessica Rich, and I am the Director of the Bureau of Consumer Protection at the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC” or “Commission”). 1 I appreciate...»

«Professional Ethics and Codes of Conduct Ethics are about what is morally wrong or right. It is not a legal requirement but it is advisable to follow. Why?  It increased the user confidence that the auditor is functioning according to a code of ethics.  The auditor need the code of ethics to make sure that he is worthy of level of trust.  Uphold the level and quality of work performed.  The rules deter from misconduct and departure from ethical codes and professional conduct.  If...»

«The European Journal of International Law Vol. 25 no. 3 © The Author, 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of EJIL Ltd. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Over-stating Palestine’s UN Membership Bid?An Ethnographic Study on the Narratives of Statehood Downloaded from http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/ at New York University on November 5, 2014 Michelle Leanne Burgis-Kasthala* Abstract This study employs a select ethnography of...»

«TANAKH SOURCES OF JUDAS ISCARIOT LAWRENCE BRISKIN INTRODUCTION [Note: This Introduction is a revised and shortened version of the Introduction to the first of my articles in this series, Foretold, Fulfilled, Copied in JBQ XXXI (AprilJune 2003). For scholarly citations to the present introduction, please refer to that article. SMALL CAPS are used where emphasis has been added. – LB] For at least 1800 years Christianity and Judaism have been two separate religions. At its beginning, however,...»

«Fact Sheet Unmarried Couples, Debt and Property When people get married, there are legal rules that apply to the relationship. These rules also control things if their marriage ends in divorce. For example, when married people get divorced, Minnesota law says the stuff they own will be divided fairly between them. It doesn’t matter who paid for what. When a couple lives together without getting married these rules do not apply. If you and your partner don’t want to get married it is a good...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.sa.i-pdf.info - Abstracts, books, theses

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.