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Aghion, P., and P. Bolton (1997), “A theory of trickle-down growth and development”, Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 64, pp. 151-172.

Ali, I. and H. Hwa Son (2007), “Measuring inclusive growth”, Asian Development Review, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 11–31.

Anand, R., S. Mishra and Sh. J. Peiris (2013), “Inclusive growth: Measurement and determinants”, IMF Working Paper, No. 13/135.

Arnold, J. (2008), “Do tax structures affect economic growth? Empirical evidence from a panel of OECD Countries”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 463, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Atkinson, A.B. (2013), “Ensuring social inclusion in changing labour and capital markets, Part II: Putting people first and macro-economic policy”, European Economy Economic Papers, No 481.

Atkinson, A.B. (2011), “On Lateral Thinking”, Journal of Economic Inequality, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 319Atkinson, A.B. (1970), “On the measurement of inequality”, Journal of Economic Theory, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 244-263.

Barrientos, S. (2013), “Gender and global production networks: Cocoa-chocolate sourcing from Ghana and India”, Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper, University of Manchester.

Barro, R. (2000), “Inequality and growth in a panel of countries”, Journal of Economic Growth, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 5-32.

Bassanini, A. et al. (2001), “Economic growth: The role of policies and institutions: Panel data. Evidence from OECD Countries”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 283, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Bassanini, A. and R. Duval (2006), “Employment patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the role of policies and institutions”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 486, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Beal, D., E. Rueder-Sabater and T. Espirito-Santo (2012), From Wealth to Well-being, Boston Consulting Group Report, November.

Beck, T. (2013), “Finance and growth: too much of a good thing?, www.voxeu.org/article/finance-andgrowth.

Boarini et al. (2014), “Inclusive growth: Concepts, methods and work ahead”, OECD Publishing, Paris, forthcoming.

Boarini et al. (2012), “What makes for a better life?: The determinants of subjective well-being in OECD Countries—Evidence from the Gallup World Poll”, OECD Statistics Working Papers, No. 2012/03, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Bouis R., R. Duval, and F. Murtin, (2011), "The policy and institutional drivers of economic growth across OECD and non-OECD economies: New evidence from growth regressions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 843, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Boulhol, H., A. de Serres and M. Molnar (2008), “The contribution of economic geography to GDP per capita”, OECD Journal: Economic Studies, Vol. 2008/1, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Bourlès, R. et al. (2010), “Do product market regulations in upstream sectors curb productivity growth?:

Panel data evidence for OECD countries”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 791, OECD Publishing, Paris.Brewer, B.D. (2011), “Global commodity chains & world income inequalities: The missing link of inequality & the ‘upgrading’ paradox”, Journal of World-Systems Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 308Causa, O., N. Ruiz and A. de Serres (2014), “Can growth-enhancing policies lift all boats ? A analysis based on household disposable incomes”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, OECD Publishing, Paris, forthcoming.

Causa, O. S. Araujo, A. Cavaciuti, N. Ruiz, and Z. Smidova. (2014), “Economic Growth from the household perspective: GDP and income distribution developments across OECD countries”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, OECD Publishing, Paris, forthcoming.

Chen, W.-H et al. (2014), “Demographic or Labour Market Trends: What Determines the Distribution of Household Earnings in OECD Countries?” OECD Journal: Economic Studies, Vol. 2013/1, pp. 179De Serres, A. and F. Murtin (2013), “Do policies that reduce unemployment raise its volatility?: Evidence from OECD countries”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 1020, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Denk, O. et al. (2013), “Inequality and poverty in the United States: Public policies for inclusive growth”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 1052, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Crivelli, E., D. Furceri and J. Toujas-Bernaté (2012), “Can Policies Affect Employment Intensity of Growth? A Cross-Country Analysis”, IMF Working Paper, No. 12/218.

Feenstra, R.C. and G. H. Hanson (2003), “Global production sharing and rising inequality: A survey of trade and wage”, in E.K. Choi and J. Harrigan (eds.), Handbook of International Trade, Malden, Blackwell, MA.

Fleurbaey, M. and G. Gaulier (2009), “International comparisons by living standards”, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Vol. 111, No. 3, pp. 597-624.

Foster, J. and M. Szekely (2008), “Is economic growth good for the poor? Tracking low incomes using general means”, International Economic Review, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 1143-72.

Galor, O. and O. Moav (2004), “From physical to human capital accumulation: Inequality and the process of development”, Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 71, pp. 1001-1026.

Goger, A. et al. (2014), Capturing the Gains in Africa: Making the Most of Global Value Chain Participation, Center on Globalization, Governance and Competitiveness at the Social Science Research Institute, Duke University, North Carolina.

Greenwood, J. et al. (2014), “Marry your like: Assortative mating and income inequality”, National Bureau of Economic Research, No. w19829.

Hamori, S., and Y. Hashiguchi (2012), “The effect of financial deepening on inequality: Some international evidence”, Journal of Asian Economics, Vol. 23. 2012, 4, p. 353-359, Elsevier Science.

Hijzen, A. (2007), “International outsourcing, technological change, and wage inequality”, Review of International Economics, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 188-205.

International Labour Organization (2008), “Can low-income countries afford basic social security?”, Social Security Policy Briefings, Paper 3, International Labour Office, Geneva.

International Monetary Fund (2008), “Globalisation: A brief overview”, Issues Brief, www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2008/053008.htm Jaumotte, F., S. Lall and C. Papageorgiou (2008), “Rising income inequality: Technology or trade and financial globalisation?” IMF Working Papers, WP/08/185.

Jorgenson, D.W. and D.T. Slesnick (2014), “Measuring social welfare in the U.S. National Accounts”, in D.W. Jorgenson, S. Landefeld and P. Schreyer (eds.), Measuring Economic Sustainability and Progress, National Bureau of Economic Research Studies in Income and Wealth, University of Chicago Press, forthcoming.

Joumard, I. et al. (2010), “Health status determinants: Lifestyle, environment, health care resources and efficiency”, OECD Economics Department Working Paper, No. 627, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Kaplinsky, R. (2001), “Globalization and unequalisation: What can be learned from value chains analysis?” The Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 117-146.

Kluve, J. (2010), “The effectiveness of European active labour market programs”, Labour Economics, Vol.

17, No. 6, pp. 904-918.

Kneer, C. (2013), “Finance as a magnet for the best and brightest: Implications for the real economy” DNB Working Paper No. 392, September 2013, Amsterdam.

Koske, I., J. Fournier and I. Wanner (2012), “Less income inequality and more growth—Are they compatible? Part 2. The distribution of labour income”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 925, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Krugman, P. (2007), “Trade and inequality, revisited”, Vox EU, 15 June.

Levine, R. (2005), “Finance and Growth: Theory and Evidence”, in Aghion, P., and S. Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 865-934, Elsevier.

Mackenbach et al. (2008), “Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in 22 European Countries”, The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 358, pp. 2468-2481.

Madison, A. (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD Development Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Nickell, S., L. Nunziata and W. Ochel (2005), “Unemployment in the OECD since the 1960s. What do we know?”, Economic Journal, Vol. 115, No. 500, pp. 1-27.

Newfarmer, R. and M. Sztajerowska (2012), “Trade and employment in a fast-changing world”, in D. Lippoldt, Policy Priorities for International Trade and Jobs, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Nunziata, L. (2002), “Unemployment, labour market institutions and shocks”, Economics Papers, 2002W16, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.

OECD (2014a), African Economic Outlook 2014: Global Value Chains and Africa's Industrialisation, OECD Publishing, Paris, forthcoming.

OECD (2014b), Social Cohesion Policy Review of Viet Nam, OECD Development Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris, forthcoming.

OECD (2013a), Economic Policy Reforms 2013: Going for Growth, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2013b), How is Life? 2013: Measuring Well-being, OECD Publishing, Paris OECD (2012a), African Economic Outlook, Promoting Youth Employment, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2012b), Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2012c), Economic Policy Reforms 2012: Going for Growth, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2012d), Latin American Economic Outlook 2012:Transforming the State for Development, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2012e), Policy Priorities for International Trade and Jobs, Douglas Lippoldt (ed.), OECD, Paris.

OECD (2011a), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011b), How’s Life?: Measuring Well-being, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2009), Is Informal Normal? Towards More and Better Jobs in Developing Countries, OECD Development Centre Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2008), Growing Unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2006), Promoting Pro-Poor Growth: Policy Statement, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2001), Historical Statistics, 1970-2000, OECD Publishing, Paris.

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Introduction The previous chapters have shown that, regardless of how it is measured, inequality of incomes is on the rise in most OECD countries, and that it is even higher, on average, in developing countries and emerging economies. Low incomes are associated not only with low material standards of living, but also with poorer health, shorter lives, less education, weaker attachment to the labour market, and lower levels of integration into society at all levels, all of which tend to persist across generations. Despite decades of social policies aimed, with some undeniable success, at narrowing the gaps in outcomes between the disadvantaged and the advantaged, it has become clear that more avenues need to be explored, because high and/or growing inequality pose a threat to both social harmony and to economic growth itself.

Building on the trends described in Chapter 1 and the key elements of the framework presented in Chapter 2, this chapter discusses the main policy areas that could be part of national Inclusive Growth strategies. Emphasis is placed on the key policy domains that are known to have a strong positive effect on the long-term growth potential of economies and could at the same time lead to improvements in the nonincome outcomes that matter for well-being, as well as a better distribution of these income and nonincome outcomes. In addition to the focus on outcomes, policy initiatives are also discussed with a view to improving the distribution of opportunities. The major policy areas reviewed in this chapter are macroeconomic (including tax/benefit systems); labour markets; education; competition and regulation;

innovation and entrepreneurship; financial sector; infrastructure and public services; national versus regional versus local issues; and foreign aid and development.

3.1 – The macroeconomic underpinnings of Inclusive Growth Sound macro-economic policies are a pre-condition for sustained growth, employment and poverty alleviation but can also generate some trade-offs between equity and efficiency. A stable macroeconomic framework makes investment less risky, ex ante, contributing to sustainable growth and job creation. There is however a trade-off between efficiency and equity in this context: higher investment leads to higher productivity and higher wages than would otherwise be the case, but higher investment and capital intensity can also result in higher income shares for the owners of capital. Low inflation, which characterises a predictable macroeconomic environment, also encourages investment, which is essential for growth, and preserves the real value of income, which is important for social groups with limited access to financial services and products. Moreover, low budget deficits and government indebtedness are known to create a favourable environment for growth and could make the fiscal policy stance more redistributive by creating room in the budget for higher spending on social services and protection. Macroeconomic policies that prevent a build-up of external imbalances also avoid corrective swings in exchange rates that can be detrimental to vulnerable social groups.

Adverse distributional effects from macroeconomic instability are likely to be strong in developing and emerging market economies. Income losses arising from high inflation are likely to be greater where financial markets are shallower, and many households, especially poorer ones, have no or only limited access to financial services (Prasad, 2013). In those countries, many workers are in the informal sector and have no entitlement to unemployment insurance and formal social safety nets that could cushion the effects of job losses arising from adverse macroeconomic shocks. An economic downturn can thus be financially catastrophic for many households, possibly with long-lasting effects.

Monetary policies and their impact on income distribution

Monetary policy affects the distribution of income. In many countries, monetary policy is conducted within an inflation targeting framework and focuses primarily on price stability. In some cases, central banks also pursue other targets, de facto or de jure, such as financial stability and exchange rate stability, and other indicators, such as the unemployment rate, are being used as intermediate targets where forward guidance is used as part of the monetary authority’s toolkit. However, changes in the monetary stance alter the relative prices of financial assets, shifting income between debtors and creditors and the net holders of different financial assets, thus impacting on the overall income distribution.

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