FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, books, theses

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 || 12 | 13 |   ...   | 35 |

«Corrigenda to OECD publications may be found on line at: © OECD 2014 You can copy, download or print OECD content for ...»

-- [ Page 11 ] --

OECD (2011b), Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011c), Meeting the Challenge of Financing Water and Sanitation: Tools and Approaches, OECD Studies on Water, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011d), OECD Regions at a Glance 2011, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011e), OECD Regional Outlook: Building Resilient Regions for Stronger Economies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011f), Perspectives on Global Development 2012: Social Cohesion in a Shifting World, OECD Development Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011g), Regions and Innovation Policies, OECD Reviews of Regional Innovation, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2011h), Territorial Reviews: The Gauteng City-Region, South Africa 2011, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2010a), Latin American Economic Outlook 2011: How Middle-Class is Latin America?

OECD Development Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2010b), Perspectives on Global Development 2010: Shifting Wealth, OECD Development Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2010c), PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do – Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science, Vol. 1, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2010d), PISA 2009 Results: Overcoming Social Background – Equity in Learning Opportunities and Outcomes, Vol. 2, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2009a), Is Informal Normal? Towards More and Better Jobs in Developing Countries, OECD Development Centre Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2009b), Latin American Economic Outlook 2010, OECD Development Centre, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2008a), Growing Unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2008b), OECD Employment Outlook, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2008c), OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2006a), Competitive Cities in the Global Economy, OECD Territorial Reviews, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2006b), Economic Valuation of Environmental Health Risks to Children, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2005), OECD Regions at Glance, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD and FAO (2012), OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2012, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD and World Health Organization (WHO) (2012), Health at a Glance: Asia/Pacific 2012, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD, J.Gagnon and D.Khoudour-Castéras (2011), Tackling the Policy Challenges of Migration:

Regulation, Integration, Development, Development Centre Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Olli-Segendorf, Å. (2005), “Wage effects of search methods for the Nordic and the non-Nordic born”, in Job Search Strategies and Wage Effects for Immigrants, Swedish Institute for Social Research, Dissertation Series, No. 65, Stockholm University, Stockholm.

Paulette, C. (2014), “Viet Nam social policy and public service provision”, background paper for the OECD Social Cohesion Policy Review of Viet Nam (forthcoming).

Perfetti, M. (2013), “Colombia’s Government Mission to Strengthen the System of Cities”, Departamento Nacional de Planeación, August, Bogotá.

Pressman, S. (2007),”The decline of the middle class: An international perspective”, Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp.181-200.

Prüss-Üstün, A. and C. Corvalán (2006), Preventing Disease through Healthy Environments: Towards an Estimate of the Environmental Burden of Disease, WHO, Geneva.

Putnam, R. (2000), Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community, Simon and Schuster, New York.

Ravallion, M. (2010), “The developing world’s bulging (but vulnerable) middle class”, World Development, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 445-454.  Sahn, D.E. and D. C. Stifel (2003), "Urban-rural inequality in living standards in Africa," Journal of African Economies, Vol. 12, No.4, pp. 564-597.

Sassi, F. (2010), Obesity and the Economics of Prevention: Fit not Fat, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Sassi, F. et al. (2009), “Improving lifestyles, tackling obesity: The health and economic impact of prevention strategies”, OECD Health Working Papers, No. 48, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Sassen, S. (2006), Cities in a World Economy, 3rd edition, Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Saxenian, A. (1994), Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Schwartz, J. (1994), “Total suspended particulate matter and daily mortality in Cincinnati, Ohio”, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 102, No. 2, February, pp.186-189.

Sen, A.K. (2008), “The economics of happiness and capability”, in L. Bruni, F. Comim and M. Pugno (eds.), Capability and Happiness, Oxford University Press, New York.

Sparrow, R. and E. Van de Poel (2013), “Financial consequences of ill health and informal coping mechanisms in Indonesia”, SMERU Working Paper, SMERU Research Institute, April.

Sumner, A. (2013), “Who are the poor? New regional estimates of the composition of education and health ‘poverty’ by spatial and social inequalities”, Overseas Development Institute Working Paper, No. 378, Overseas Development Institute, London.

Stiglitz, J. E., A. Sen, and J-P. Fitoussi (2009), Report by the Commission on Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress, www.stiglitz-sen-fitoussi.fr/en/index.htm Thurow, L.C. (1984),“The disappearance of the middle class”, New York Times, F.3.

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2013), UNESCO Education Database, http://databases.unesco.org/education/anglais.htm.

UNESCO (2012a), Education for All Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO Publishing, Paris.

UNESCO (2012b), World Atlas of Gender Equality on Education, UNESCO Publishing, Paris.

UNESCO-Institute for Statistics (UIS) (2013a), “Adult and youth literacy: National, regional and global Trends”, 1985-2015, UNESCO-UIS Paper, June, UNESCO-UIS Publishing, Montreal.

UNESCO-UIS (2013b), Toward Universal Learning: Recommendations from the Learning Metrics Task Force, Summary Report, UNESCO-UIS and Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, Montreal and Washington D.C.

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2011), UNICEF Annual Report 2011, UNICEF Publications, New York.

UNICEF (2012), The State of the World’s Children 2012: Children in an Urban World, UNICEF Publications, New York.

United Nations (UN) (2013a), The Millennium Development Goals Report 2013, UN, New York.

UN (2013b), “We can end poverty: Millennium Development Goals and beyond 2015”, Fact Sheet, September, UN Department of Public Information, the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the UN Development Programme.

UN (2012a), The Millennium Development Goals Report 2012, UN, New York.

UN (2012b), United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/67/L36: Global Health and Foreign Policy, 6 December, UN, New York.

Whitely, P. (2000), “Economic growth and social capital”, Political Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 443

–  –  –

WHO (2009), Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks, WHO, Geneva.

WHO (2008), World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care Now More Than Ever, WHO, Geneva.

WHO (2005), “World Health Assembly Resolution 58.33: Sustainable health financing, universal coverage and social health insurance”, WHO, Geneva, www.who.int/health_financing/documents/cov-wharesolution5833/en/index.html accessed, 13 February 2013.

WHO and UNICEF (2010), Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water: 2010 Update, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation, WHO Press, Geneva.

Woodhouse, A. (2006), “Social capital and economic development in regional Australia: A case study”, Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 83-94.

World Bank (2013a), “Colombia case study: The subsidized regime of Colombia’s National Health Insurance System”, Universal Health Coverage Studies Series (UNICO), No. 15, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

World Bank (2013b), “The State of the Poor: Where Are the Poor, Where is Extreme Poverty Harder to End, and What is the Current Profile of the World’s Poor?”, Economic Premise Note Series, October, No. 125, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) Network, The World Bank, Washington, D.C, World Bank (2011), Learning for All: Investing in People’s Knowledge and Skills to Promote Development, The World Bank Group Education Strategy 2020, Executive Summary, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

World Bank (2009a), “The global economic crisis: Assessing vulnerability with a poverty lens”, Policy Note, The World Bank, Washington, DC, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/WBGVulnerableCountriesBrief.pdf.

World Bank (2009b), World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography, World Development Report, The World Bank, Washington, DC.

Yusuf, M.E. (2010), “Promoting employment recovery while meeting fiscal goal: Indonesia case”, presentation for the Conference on Post-crisis Employment and Social Policies in Developing Asia, Tokyo, 15-17 December, www.adbi.org/conf-seminarpapers/2011/01/11/4328.employment.recovery.fiscal.indonesia/

–  –  –

Introduction The previous chapter provided an array of evidence that income inequality has been rising for some time in many OECD countries, including in those where it was formerly relatively low, and that it remains high, and is even rising, in many developing countries and emerging market economies. In all countries, there are also major differences in non-material outcomes between different socioeconomic groups. Everywhere, those at the upper end of the income distribution have a greater probability of obtaining a job, having a high level of education, being healthy and having a high life expectancy, and of living in an unpolluted environment, or, more generally, in a place where access to jobs and the benefits of society lead to a higher quality of life. In general, worse outcomes along the non-income spectrum are correlated with being in the lower levels of the income distribution.

This chapter discusses the main drivers of rising income inequalities in most OECD countries, as well as in several developing countries and emerging market economies, and proposes a multidimensional policy framework for Inclusive Growth building on the OECD’s work on wellbeing, income inequality and pro-growth structural policies.

2.1. Why have inequalities risen?

Drivers of inequalities in OECD countries In OECD countries, the single most important driver of rising income inequality has been greater dispersion in wages and salaries. Earnings account for about three quarters of household income among the working-age population (OECD, 2011a). In most cases, as discussed in Chapter 1, the earnings of the richest 10% of employees have increased more rapidly than those of the poorest 10%.

There are a number of factors behind this trend:

 Globalisation is often said to be the main culprit for rising wage inequality and unemployment, but data suggest that its effect has been limited, at least in the OECD area (Box 2.1). Some feared that low-income workers were disproportionately affected by import competition, and that the offshoring of activities in the tradable goods and services sectors had decreased the demand for less-skilled labour. Increased imports from low-income countries tend to heighten wage dispersion, but only in countries with weaker employment protection legislation (OECD 2011a). OECD analysis (OECD, 2013a, and OECD, 2011a) suggests that rising trade integration has had a limited impact on wage inequality and employment. The impact of globalisation on inequality has been minor compared with that of changes in technology (Jaumotte et al., 2008).

Box 2.1. Global Value Chains (GVCs): a new optic for studying trade and inequality?

The consensus view in the inequality literature is that globalisation contributed to about 20% of rising wage inequality and that technological change has been more important than trade in causing changes in income distribution (WTO, 2008; and Newfarmer and Sztajerowska in OECD, 2012e). Yet the conclusion on the modest impact of trade is being increasingly questioned in the context of the rise of emerging economies and the growing international fragmentation of production (e.g. Krugman, 2007).

Differences in productivity and preferences drive international trade and result in efficiency gains and higher aggregate income, whereas trade distortions can be a source of both economic inefficiency and inequality. They lead to inequality within and across countries through the effects of tariffs, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) and traderelated regulations which are unevenly distributed across different economic sectors and activities; differences in market entry barriers and incentives to rent-seeking along different sectors and segments of Global Value Chains (GVCs); and policies that discriminate by geographical origins of trade, such as is the case with some regional trade agreements (RTAs). In all cases, the intention is to generate or preserve rents.

Kaplinsky (2001) argues that when segments or actors within a value chain are protected from competition they will enjoy higher rents and thus capture a higher share of value added. Additionally, value chains usually involve some degree of ‘governance’ with certain key actors within the chain taking responsibility for the division of labour across different segments of the chain, and for its evolution. Thus, it is important how and on what terms a producer participates in the global economy (e.g. buyer-driven chains in textiles and clothing or producer-driven chains in motor vehicles manufacturing). Finally, the effectiveness of value chains arises from systemic efficiency;

namely closer cooperation between links in the chain rather than improving the efficiency of individual links.

These characteristics of GVCs affect the distribution of value added along the chain and thus the distribution of income across and within countries. According to Kaplinsky (op. cit.) barriers to entry and competition are key determinants of the distribution of rents, with those who command rents (e.g. associated with their brand name recognition or copyrights), or who have the ability to create new domains of rent, tending to gain, and those stuck in activities with low barriers to entry tending to lose out. The ability to identify rent-rich activities along the whole chain of value-added then provides the key to understanding the global appropriation of the returns to production.

Along the same lines, Brewer (2011) stresses important links between the GVC and the analyses of global income inequalities. The traditional application of the GVC approach was to investigate the geographical dispersion, governance and institutional context of a given chain to illuminate the ways in which the most powerful actors and agencies organise the chain for their own benefit. More recently however, GVC analysis has focused on the concept of “upgrading” namely ways of improving the competitive position of particular value chain participants and capturing higher shares of value added, with an implicit assumption that such upgrading can aid national development. Such upgrading can involve moving into more technologically demanding manufacturing processes, but also the processing of agricultural and metal and mineral products with higher value-added.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 || 12 | 13 |   ...   | 35 |

Similar works:

«DESIGN PIRACY MAURICE A. WEIKART* The very name design piracy has been called a misnomer, a clever labeling of certain lawful acts with the stigma of bloodshed and robbery on the hngh seas. This criticism of terms seems entirely justified; copying rather than piracy would seem to be a term much better adapted to an analytical discussion of the design-protection problem and will be used henceforth in this paper. In 1914 the agitation for protection against copying of non-functional designs which...»

«ILPA Briefing for House of Lords’ Consideration of the Immigration and Nationality (Fees) Order 2016 Grand Committee 10 February 2015 The Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association (ILPA) is a registered charity and a professional membership association. The majority of members are barristers, solicitors and advocates practising in all areas of immigration, asylum and nationality law. Academics, non-governmental organisations and individuals with an interest in the law are also members....»

«ARTICLES WHEN THE LAWYER KNOWS THE CLIENT IS GUILTY: CLIENT CONFESSIONS IN LEGAL ETHICS, POPULAR CULTURE, AND LITERATURE MICHAEL ASIMOW & RICHARD WEISBERG* What should a criminal defense lawyer do when the lawyer is certain that the client is factually guilty (usually because the client has confessed to the lawyer), but the client nevertheless insists on a strong defense? This situation may be the defense lawyer’s worst nightmare. The problem troubles legal ethicists as well as the general...»

«Pursuant to Ind.Appellate Rule 65(D), this Memorandum Decision shall not be regarded as precedent or cited before any court except for the purpose of establishing the defense of res judicata, collateral estoppel, or the law of the case.ATTORNEY FOR APPELLANT: ATTORNEYS FOR APPELLEE: KATHERINE A. CORNELIUS STEVE CARTER Marion County Public Defender Agency Attorney General of Indiana Indianapolis, Indiana MATTHEW D. FISHER Deputy Attorney General Indianapolis, Indiana IN THE COURT OF APPEALS OF...»

«UNCITRAL UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions UNITED NATIONS Further information may be obtained from: UNCITRAL secretariat, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria Telephone: (+43-1) 26060-4060 Telefax: (+43-1) 26060-5813 Internet: www.uncitral.org E-mail: uncitral@uncitral.org UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW UNCITRAL Legislative Guide on Secured Transactions UNITED NATIONS New York,...»

«SERIES: THERE HAS TO BE A BETTER WAY Page 1 of 6 STICKS AND STONES SERIES: THERE HAS TO BE A BETTER WAY Danny Hall We have a fascination with murder. Agatha Christie’s many murder mysteries have been popular for years and years. The leading television series over the last decade has been Law & Order, which is primarily about murder. The current number 1 show on American TV is CSI, also about murder. Perhaps murder appeals to a dark side somewhere deep within us. More likely, if we objectify...»

«UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment with additional article 5 bis as adopted in 1998 UNITED NATIONS UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment with additional article 5 bis as adopted in 1998 UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION Sales No. E.99.V.4 ISBN 92-1-133607-4 UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment with additional article 5 bis as adopted in 1998 UNITED NATIONS New York, 1999 CONTENTS Page GENERAL ASSEMBLY RESOLUTION...»

«LOGO Company name (full legal name) Issued May 5, 2009 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET WOOD PELLETS IN BAGS This MSDS is valid for Wood Pellets in bags up to 25 kg in size and stored in ventilated space with minimum one air exchange per 24 hours). If bag or multiple bags are stored in unventilated space smaller than 10 times the volume of the bag or bags, see MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET for Wood Pellets in Bulk issued by the producer. 1. Product Identification and Use Product name/trade name: Wood...»

«Planning textbook development for primary education in Africa Planning textbook development for primary education in Africa Report of an H E P seminar Maputo, 19 22 November 1991 Etienne B runs wie Habib Hajjar International Institute for Educational Planning (established by UNESCO) Swedish International Development Authority The views and opinions expressed in this volume are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of U N E S C O or of S I D A. T h e designations...»

«Testimony before the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs by Heidi Mandanis Schooner Professor of Law Columbus School of Law The Catholic University of America Washington, D.C. 20064 Hearing on “Bank Capital and Liquidity Regulation” June 7, 2016 Chairman Shelby, Ranking Member Brown, and members of the Committee, thank you for this opportunity to participate in today’s hearing on bank capital and liquidity regulation. In my testimony, I will make two central...»

«UNJUST FACTORS OR LEGAL GROUND? ABSENCE OF BASIS AND THE ENGLISH LAW OF UNJUST ENRICHMENT Nathalie Neumayer* Traditionally, there are two main approaches to enrichment by transfer, the common law ‘unjust factors’ approach and the civilian ‘absence of basis’ approach. In the aftermath of the so-called ‘swaps cases’, Peter Birks proclaimed the dethronement of the unjust factors in the English system, said that English law has embraced a German-style absence of basis approach, and...»

«UNCITRAL UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW A Guide to UNCITRAL Basic facts about the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law UNITED NATIONS Further information may be obtained from: UNCITRAL secretariat, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria Telephone: (+43-1) 26060-4060 Telefax: (+43-1) 26060-5813 Internet: www.uncitral.org E-mail: uncitral@uncitral.org UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW A Guide to UNCITRAL Basic facts...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.sa.i-pdf.info - Abstracts, books, theses

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.