FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Abstracts, books, theses

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 || 12 | 13 |   ...   | 14 |

«Berlin, September 2010 Foto auf dem Cover: Internally displaced persons in a tent camp in Girdassen, Dahuk gov­ ernorate in Iraq. © IOM 2007 (Photo: ...»

-- [ Page 11 ] --

Education Access to education is a further, salient matter in the lives of Iraqi refugees. Before the war, Iraq benefited from a relatively well-developed education sector and the country was re­ garded as having one of the most educated populations in the Middle East. Expectations among the refugees concerning education are thus high and for many, securing a good edu­ cation for their children is the prime motivator for seeking resettlement abroad.76 However, in most cases, Iraqi refugees have no hope of accessing good quality, higher edu­ cation in either Syria or Jordan. Although Iraqi children are allowed to attend public primary and secondary schools in Syria and Jordan, various economic and bureaucratic hurdles have been identified as explanations for why school attendance remains low among Iraqi children.

Currently available percentages of Iraqi children attending or not attending school should be Syria." ed. UNHCR ICMC. Beirut.

treated with caution, especially as these figures are closely linked to how much donor sup­ port to the governments, UNHCR and international NGOs is forthcoming. According to an international NGO providing education assistance to Iraqi children, 60% of Iraqi children do not attend school. However, in a group of around 40 Iraqi children aged 9-12 attending a Caritas-funded sports event in October 2009, each one was found to be attending school.77 Sometimes it is difficult to obtain the right documentation, sometimes money for stationary and school uniforms is missing and more frequently, children have work to contribute to household earnings. While UNHCR in Syria provides material assistance to help children attend school and even covers the university fees for a small number of Iraqi students, the agency is by no means reaching all potential pupils.

Access to university places is more complicated, and in Jordan, Iraqis are only allowed to attend prohibitively expensive private institutions. In Syria, Iraqis are in principle allowed to attend state universities, however have to pay fees. Also, as entry into university in Syria is extremely competitive and narrowly determined by final school grades, Iraqi youth who have suffered years of disruption to their study are severely disadvantaged in this competition for places.

6. Conclusion As presented throughout this brief report on security concerns related to post-2003 Iraqi mi­ gration into Syria and Jordan, this large-scale movement of people has to date resulted in only one major incident; the three suicide attacks carried out by Iraqi nationals in Amman in November 2005. In the current situation, the most severe threat presents itself to the human security of the Iraqi migrants. Syria and Jordan, which are both not party to the Geneva Refugee Convention, do not extend meaningful protection to Iraqis, regardless of whether they are recognised as legitimate refugees by UNHCR or not. While both governments cur­ rently exercise a regime of tolerance to illegally residing Iraqis, without firm residency rights this tolerance can end at any moment. Combined with a blanket employment ban (Syria) or heavily restricted employment options (Jordan), Iraqis can currently only exist precariously in both states.

Data and statistics available on the Iraqi presence in Syria and Jordan are patchy and dis­ puted. UNHCR produces reliable figures on how many persons have registered at its centres (ca 215 000 for Syria, ca 52 000 for Jordan), these stand in marked contrast to the figures claimed by the respective governments (1.2 million for Syria, around 500 000 for Jordan).

Nevertheless, both countries face a number of mid to long term security risks that arise out of Iraqi immigration, which is reflected in the stricter controls that both countries have begun to place on Iraqis since 2006. Increased inflation, at least partially linked to the influx of Iraqi capital has already had an economic and social impact on growing poverty and widening income gaps. Both Syria and Jordan face difficult economic conditions in the next years and the question of how to integrate and/or feed the Iraqis during this time remains unsolved.

Regionally, the Iraqi presence could become a destabilizing factor in both Syria and Jordan, should the diaspora be manipulated by outside players and become politically active.

Events in Iraq will play an important role in the development of Iraqi migration into the region.

The currently greatest and possibly most likely risk is an outbreak of war between the central Iraqi government and the Kurdish regional government (or at least Kurdish forces) in the Interviews/observations in Damascus, October 2009 north, as high tensions have been reported and the US has been required to continue its presence in cities in the north, to prevent clashes. Any increase in violence is likely to lead to an upsurge of migration into all of Iraq’s neighbouring states.

To promote regional security and ameliorate the situation of Iraqi refugees, the international community should continue to fund UNHCR operations, which, particularly in Syria, have shown great flexibility and creativity in their approach. Governments in Europe and the US should speed up the resettlement process for Iraqis that have been referred to them for re­ settlement by UNHCR and provide them with sufficient assistance and support to make inte­ gration possible. Finally, diplomatic efforts to urge the governments of Syria and Jordan to sign the Geneva Refugee Convention should continue, as should efforts to find a regional settlement solution for those Iraqis who cannot be resettled further and who cannot return to Iraq.

The worst effect of the crisis has been on the Iraqi refugees themselves, who continue to live in a legal limbo and without residency or work permit in any country, while Iraq remains too unstable for them to return. Most of them appear to survive by ‘muddling through’: by circum­ venting work prohibitions, taking on menial jobs, sacrificing their children’s education to send them to work or by attempting to smuggle themselves to Europe. Without a legal resettle­ ment in the region or abroad and in the absence of stability in Iraq, this, in all likelihood, will continue to be their dominant survival strategy for years to come.

–  –  –

Figure 1: Refugee populations in WA, 1994-2008 Box 1: The case of Côte d’Ivoire: resources, identity and conflict Box 2: Tuareg Community in Mali and Niger Box 3: Regional cooperation and national government policies Abstract The debate on African migration is disproportionately dominated by extra-continental flows, mainly to OECD countries, and generally informed by the latter’s security concerns. Yet the bulk of African migration in general and West African in particular is internal (within and be­ yond national borders) and these population movements pose a multitude of security chal­ lenges at individual, national and regional levels. Migration in West Africa is characterised by a complex web of movements that reflect both social mobility and the pressure of political, economic and environmental factors. They can be divided into voluntary and forced move­ ments of people. Whereas voluntary movements are motivated mainly by economic consid­ erations, family links and studies, forced movements can generally be attributed to political factors (persecution and armed conflicts), natural disasters and, to a lesser extent, human trafficking. Migration patterns in the region indicate a non-linear dynamic between sending, transit and receiving countries, indicating the capacity of migrants to assess new opportuni­ ties and the insertion of West African migration in the global migration system. The main se­ curity challenges associated with migration in West Africa are to be found at individual, na­ tional and regional levels. Individual migrants sometimes face exploitation and see their basic rights violated in transit and receiving countries. A shortage in production capacities and loss of skilled manpower with implications for food and human security constitute some security consequences of migration for sending communities or countries. At the national) and re­ gional levels, security risks of migration include tensions between migrants and locals, rising rates of crime, and diplomatic tensions between the sending and receiving countries in case of the latter offering political asylum to migrants from the former. But migration also presents some development and even security opportunities in the region, such as remittances and brain gain.


As a result of various internal and external factors, migration flows have dramatically in­ creased in Africa in the last two decades. Although this surge in population movement fol­ lows a rather worldwide trend, the nature of migration in Africa has its own dynamics and specificities. The bulk of migration flows in Africa is internal, either within national boundaries or towards various countries of the continent; often in the same region. A recent World Bank­ funded study released in 2007 on the South-South migration found that of the estimated 14.5 million Sub-Saharan Africans living outside their home countries, 10.2 million of them are residing in other Sub-Saharan African countries, with only 4 million in High-income OECD countries (Ratha & Shaw, 2007:6). Of all Africans, West Africans are among the most mobile populations. This is the result of the combined effects of history (colonialism), geography, culture, politics (persecution, conflicts and displacement due to natural disasters) and econ­ omy in a region, which has adopted and is striving to fully implement the principle of free movement of goods and persons.

The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) released in late 2007 some data indicating that an estimated 3% of the West African population reside in other countries of the region with some major hikes in countries like Côte d’Ivoire (ECOWAS/SWAC, 2006).

The current debate on African migration has disproportionately been focused on extra­ continental flows, mainly to OECD countries, and in the context of security threats posed to these countries. Yet the generally neglected intra-African movements do pose some security challenges to the national and regional authorities that request the increased attention of policy-makers. But beyond the risks posed by migration in West Africa, population move­ ments also provide some development opportunities for the region by allowing a circulation of talents and remittances.

The aim of this study is to provide a general overview of the nexus between migration and security as well as its implications for development in the West African region. To do so, it reviews the state of research on this issue and looks at the challenges that migration poses at regional, national and human/individual levels. Particularly, the study focuses on risks but also on opportunities generated by migration to receiving, transit and sending countries. Poli­ cies of national governments in the region as well as those of the ECOWAS are mentioned in their capacity to address the phenomenon.

Migration in the region is characterised by both voluntary and forced movements of people.

Although this is true for both the colonial era and since independence in the early 1960s, the study focuses on the latter period. Voluntary movements are motivated mainly by economic considerations (i.e. trade and search for greener pastures), family links and studies, while the forced ones can generally be attributed to political factors (persecution and armed conflicts), natural disasters and, to a lesser extent, human trafficking. In the post-colonial era the gen­ eralisation of refugee movements in the region began with the Liberian civil war that started in 1990 even though there were isolated refugee movements and internally displaced per­ sons prior to 1990, such as during the Nigerian civil war (1967-1970). The three-year period from 1997 to 1999 constitutes the peak of these movements, with the refugee population reaching a high of 2,886,799 in 1998 (UNHCR, 2000).

West African countries can be divided into five main categories in terms of their migration status. They are either net sending countries (e.g. Burkina Faso and Niger), net receiving countries (i.e. Côte d’Ivoire and The Gambia), both sending and receiving countries (e.g.

Guinea and Benin), sending and transit countries (e.g. Guinea-Bissau and Mali), or countries that encompass all these categories such as Nigeria, Ghana and Senegal (see Table 1 be­ low)78.

The security challenges posed by migration in the region are considered at three levels: indi­ vidual, national and regional. It appears that the main security challenge of migration re­ volves around the risks posed to individual migrants, who are sometimes exploited and their basic rights violated. With regard to sending communities or countries, the main security consequences of migration can be seen in the shortage in production capacities and loss of skilled manpower with implications for food and human security. At the national (receiving) and regional levels, security risks of migration include tensions between migrants and locals around scarce resources, rising rates of crime, including political and religious extremism, as well as diplomatic tensions between the sending and receiving countries in case of the latter offering political asylum to migrants from the former.

But migration also presents some development and even security opportunities in the region.

For example, knowing that a significant number of its citizens reside in a neighbouring coun­ try might dissuade such a country from engaging in any hostile activity with this country, thereby preventing any soaring of relations between the two countries. Development oppor­ tunities include remittances and brain gain.

–  –  –

This section provides a brief historical overview of migration in West Africa since independ­ ence, looking at the national and regional dynamics that may be said to account for the phe­ nomenon, the nature of migration and the state of research in this regard.

1.1. A brief historical overview on migration Judged by a long history of mobility that dates back to pre-colonial times but which was am­ plified by the latter, West African populations seem to have a ‘culture of mobility’ (De Bruijn et al, 2001). Most West African populations are connected through ethnic/linguistic linkages. A number of large ethnic groups, such as the Fulani/Peul, Mandinka/Dioula/Mandingo, Yoruba and Hausa can be found in more than five countries (Adepoju, 2005). Some of those still have strong family links, with multiple nationalities being found among the members of a sin­ gle extended family. Even though colonial borders have created strong national identities, formal and informal trans-border links characterise the daily life of West-African populations (Fall, 2004; SWAC/OECD, 2006).

Recent history of migration in West Africa can be divided into three main periods: the colonial period; the period from independence to around 1989; and since the 1990s. In addition to creating new forms of authority, space, identity and production, colonisation also generated a wide range of population movements. The most important were in the form of forced labour This finding is based on the analysis of general trends as reflected in the existing literature

for construction projects plantations as well as gold and diamond mines (Ki-Zerbo, 1978:

445-46; Suret-Canale & Boahen, 1999). There were also significant movements from the Sahel to the much richer coastal regions (Konseiga, 2005). The creation of a colonial civil and military service, and the extensive farming of cash crops (particularly in coastal areas like Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana), created a regime of migration that heavily impacted on the composition of population groups within the region even after independence (Clark, 1994:403).

Table 1: Main sending, transit and destination countries of migrants within West Africa

–  –  –

* These two countries can be considered as net destination countries within the region.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 9 | 10 || 12 | 13 |   ...   | 14 |

Similar works:

«Implementing Cisco Nexus 9000 Series NX-OS Mode with F5 Networks’ BIG-IP Local Traffic Manager Building Architectures to Solve Business Problems © 2014 Cisco | F5. All rights reserved. Page 1 Contents Introduction Audience Document Objectives Cisco Nexus 9000 Overview Cisco Nexus 9000 Advantages F5 Networks BIG-IP LTM Overview LTM Advantages Cisco Nexus 9000 + F5 LTM Design Options Validation Approach Nexus 9000 and F5 BIG-IP Integration F5 BIG-IP Integration Overview Hierarchical Topology...»

«IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 4.Ver. I (Apr. 2015), PP 01-12 www.iosrjournals.org Causal Relationship between financial sector development and economic growth: a case of Zimbabwe David Chisunga1 (Financial Engineering, Harare Institute of Technology, Zimbabwe) Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the impact of financial sector development on economic growth in Zimbabwe, the reason being that no such research has...»

«UCD CENTRE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH WORKING PAPER SERIES Learning to Take Risks? The Effect of Education on Risk-Taking in Financial Markets Sandra E Black, University of Texas Paul J Devereux, University College Dublin Petter Lundborg and Kaveh Majlesi, Lund University WP15/09 April 2015 UCD SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN BELFIELD DUBLIN 4 Learning to Take Risks? The Effect of Education on Risk-Taking in Financial Markets* Sandra E. Black Paul J. Devereux Department of Economics...»

«Private Equity Fund Investing Investment Strategies, Entry Order and Performance Anna Söderblom Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Ph.D. Stockholm School of Economics 2011 Keywords: Private equity, Buyout capital, Venture capital, Institutional investor, Strategy, First mover advantage, Entry order, Institutional theory, Reputation Private Equity Fund Investing © SSE and Anna Söderblom, 2011 ISBN 978-91-7258-854-7 Cover graphic design: HejForm Cover illustration: Tove...»

«REMEDIATION FINANCING in Bangladesh’s Ready Made Garment Sector An Overview June 2016 The contents of this report were prepared by Emerging Markets Consulting (EMC) for the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the International Labour Organization (ILO), through its Improving Working Conditions in the Ready Made Garment Sector Programme funded by Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The responsibility for opinions expressed in this study rests solely with EMC, and as such...»

«PADM.2441 Economics of Education: Policy and Finance Leanna Stiefel Page 1 FALL 2012New York University Wagner Graduate School of Public Service PADM.2441 Economics of Education Policy and Finance Time and place Prerequisites Fall 2012, Mondays CORE.1018, Microeconomics 4:55 to 6:35 CORE.1011, Statistics I 275 Global Center, 238 Thompson PADM.2902, Statistics II Faculty Faculty contact and office hours Leanna Stiefel email best at leanna.stiefel@nyu.edu Professor of Economics 295 Lafayette...»

«Competition policy and the legitimacy of finance: evidence from the deregulation of the UK brewing industry Dr Julie Bower Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham j.m.bower@bham.ac.uk Traditionally the UK brewing model was one that incorporated vertical ownership and control of public houses (pubs). The political affiliation of the leading firms and their powerful lobbying interests were sufficient to thwart not just capital market interest but the public interest objectives of an...»

«econstor A Service of zbw Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Make Your Publication Visible Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Misch, Florian; Gemmell, Norman; Kneller, Richard Working Paper Growth and welfare maximization in models of public finance and endogenous growth ZEW Discussion Papers, No. 11-041 Provided in Cooperation with: ZEW Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research Suggested Citation: Misch, Florian; Gemmell, Norman; Kneller,...»

«TRANSCRIPT Credit Suisse Financial Services Forum February 12, 2014 Host Moshe Orenbuch, Credit Suisse Speakers Jud Linville, CEO Citi Cards PRESENTATION MOSHE ORENBUCH: Good morning, everyone, and thanks for joining us for the second day of our 15th annual financial services conference. We are very pleased to have the management of Citigroup with us. Over the past several years, the Company has significantly repaired its balance sheet. It's well-positioned to meet capital standards a full five...»

«April to June 2013 (published 4 times per year) Iyyar to Tamuz 5773 Save the Dates Wine and Trees Our Wine and Trees program pleasantly evolved into Apple juice and Trees May 14 on this past Sunday at Ready, Fire, Glaze in Cheshire. Thankfully there were Erev Shavout many junior members and family to help answer all the Mezzuzah Trivia May 20 questions. It was a relaxing and artful afternoon. The choices of pottery Healthy Women—Healthy were endless and the chapter raised money for close to...»

«[i] [This is: Gustav Cohn: The Science of Finance. Translated by Thorstein.B. Veblen. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1895 (= Economic studies of the University of Chicago. 1.), xi, 800 p. [Note: Book 3, German tax legislation of the present time, is omitted from the translation]. Original: System der Nationaloekonomie: System der Finanzwirtschaft. Ein Lesebuch für Studirende. Stuttgart: F. Enke, 1889 (= System der Nationalökonomie. 2. vol. 2 of 3).] ECONOMIC STUDIES OF THE...»

«LIBERTARIAN PAPERS VOL. 2, ART. NO. 33 (2010) SYSTEMS THINKING FOR AN ECONOMICALLY LITERATE SOCIETY MICHAEL F. REBER* IN THE US A DISMAL TRUTH EXISTS about the citizenry’s lack of understanding of economic fundamentals. Perhaps the best example which illustrates this point is the April 2010 US Senate Hearings into the financial crisis. JPMorgan Chase’s Managing Director and Senior Economist James E. Glassman expressed in a memo his great frustration with the senators’ shocking lack of...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2017 www.sa.i-pdf.info - Abstracts, books, theses

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.